The evolution of early foraminifera

Pawlowski, J., Holzmann, M., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Gooday, A.J., Cedhagen, T., Habura, A. and Bowser, S.S. (2003) The evolution of early foraminifera. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100, (20), 11494-11498. (doi:10.1073/pnas.2035132100).


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Fossil Foraminifera appear in the Early Cambrian, at about the same time as the first skeletonized metazoans. However, due to the inadequate preservation of early unilocular (single-chambered) foraminiferal tests and difficulties in their identification, the evolution of early foraminifers is poorly understood. By using molecular data from a wide range of extant naked and testate unilocular species, we demonstrate that a large radiation of nonfossilized unilocular Foraminifera preceded the diversification of multilocular lineages during the Carboniferous. Within this radiation, similar test morphologies and wall types developed several times independently. Our findings indicate that the early Foraminifera were an important component of Neoproterozoic protistan community, whose ecological complexity was probably much higher than has been generally accepted.

Abbreviations: SSU, small subunit; NJ, neighbor joining; ML, maximum likelihood; Ma, mega-annum

Item Type: Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1073/pnas.2035132100
Additional Information: Published online before print September 22, 2003
ISSNs: 1014910150 (print)
Related URLs:
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GC Oceanography
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > National Oceanography Centre (NERC)
ePrint ID: 1280
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2004
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 11:08

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