Amos, C.L., Villatoro, M., Helsby, R., Thompson, C.E.L., Zaggia, L., Umgiesser, G., Venturini, V., Are, D., Sutherland, T.F., Mazzoldi, A. and Rizzetto, F.
The measurement of sand transport in two inlets of Venice lagoon, Italy.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 87, (2), . (doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.05.016).
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Sand transport in Lido and Chioggia inlets was measured using modified Helley–Smith sand traps equipped with 60-micron nets. The traps had an efficiency of about 4% only but provided enough material for analysis. Very fine sand (0.07 < d < 0.11 mm) only was collected in the traps. Transport of sand was greatest in the bottom 10% of the water column and followed a Rouse profile. Sand extended to a height of about 4 m above the bed during peak flows corresponding to the estimated thickness of the boundary layer; and observed in synoptic ADCP profiles. The sand in the benthic boundary layer was largely inorganic (>95%); above this layer, organic content varied widely and was greatest near the surface. The movability number Ws/U* showed a linear relationship to dimensionless grain diameter (D*): (Ws/U*)=(D*/10); D* < 10. Sand concentration in suspension was simulated by a mean Rouse parameter of ?2.01 ± 0.66 (Lido inlet) and ?0.82 ± 0.27 (Chioggia inlet). The ? parameter (Hill et al., 1988) was correlated with D* and movability number in the form: ?=2.07?2.03D*+59(Ws/U*)2 (r2 = 0.42). Von Karman's constant was back-calculated from a Law of the Wall relationship as a test on the accuracy of U* estimates; a mean value of 0.37 ± 0.1 (compared to the accepted value of 0.41) suggest U* was accurate to within 10%. The constant of proportionality (? = 3.54 × 10?4) between reference concentration (Ca) and normalized excess bed shear stress was in line with the published literature.
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