Pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: putative mechanisms and novel approaches
Kolias, Angelos G., Sen, Jon and Belli, Antonio (2009) Pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: putative mechanisms and novel approaches. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 87, (1), 1-11. (doi:10.1002/jnr.21823). (PMID:18709660).
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Cerebral vasospasm is a potentially incapacitating or lethal complication in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The development of effective preventative and therapeutic interventions has been largely hindered by the fact that the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm remain poorly understood. However, intensive research during the last 3 decades has identified certain mechanisms that possibly play a role in its development. Experimental data suggest that calcium-dependent and -independent vasoconstriction is taking place during vasospasm. It appears that the breakdown products of blood in the subarachnoid space are involved, through direct and/or indirect pathways, in the development of vasospasm after SAH. Free radicals reactions, an imbalance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator substances (endothelium derived substances, e.g., nitric oxide, endothelin; arachidonic acid metabolites, e.g., prostaglandins, prostacyclin), inflammatory processes, an upheaval of neuronal mechanisms that regulate vascular tone, endothelial proliferation, and apoptosis have all been put forward as causative and/or pathogenic factors. Translational research in the field of vasospasm has traditionally aimed to identify agents/interventions in order to block the cascades initiated after SAH. The combination of novel approaches such as cerebral microdialysis, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, proteomics, and lipidomics could serve a dual purpose: elucidating the complex pathobiochemistry of vasospasm and providing clinicians with tools for early detection of this feared complication. The purpose of this Mini-Review is to provide an overview of the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm and of novel approaches used in basic and translational research.
|Keywords:||stroke, cerebral aneurysm, delayed ischaemic neurological deficit, vasoconstriction, smooth muscle contraction, microdialysis|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RB Pathology
R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
|Divisions:||University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Medicine > Clinical Neurosciences
|Date Deposited:||30 Mar 2010 11:30|
|Last Modified:||17 Jun 2013 01:19|
|RDF:||RDF+N-Triples, RDF+N3, RDF+XML, Browse.|
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