Hedrick, P.W. and Parker, J.D.
Evolutionary genetics and genetic variation of haplodiploids and X-linked genes.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, .
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The evolutionary genetics of haplodiploids and X-linked genes share many features and are different from diploid (autosomal) genes in many
respects. For example, the conditions for a stable polymorphism, the
amount of genetic load, and the effective population size are all
expected to be quite different between haplodiploids or X-linked genes
and diploids. From experimental data, the genetic load for X-linked
genes is much less than autosomal genes and appears less for
haplodiploids than for diploids. The observed amount of molecular
Variation for haplodiploids is much less than that for diploids, even
more so than predicted from the differences in effective population
size. Extensive recently published data suggest that the differences in
variation for X-linked and autosomal genes for Drosophila, mice, and
humans are consistent with the differences predicted theoretically
based on the relative effective population sizes.
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