Ganapathisubramani, B., Lakshminarasimhan, K. and Clemens, N.T.
Determination of complete velocity gradient tensor by using cinematographic stereoscopic PIV in a turbulent jet.
Experiments in Fluids, 42, (6), . (doi:10.1007/s00348-007-0303-5).
Cinematographic stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in the far field of an axisymmetric co-flowing turbulent round jet (Re T ? 150, where Re T is the Reynolds number based on Taylor micro scale) to resolve small and intermediate scales of turbulence. The time-resolved three-component PIV measurements were performed in a plane normal to the axis of the jet and the data were converted to quasi-instantaneous three-dimensional (volumetric) data by using Taylor’s hypothesis. The availability of the quasi-three-dimensional data enabled the computation of all nine components of the velocity gradient tensor over a volume. The use of Taylor’s hypothesis was validated by performing a separate set of time-resolved two component “side-view” PIV measurements in a plane along the jet axis. Probability density distributions of the velocity gradients computed using Taylor’s hypothesis show good agreement with those computed directly with the spatially resolved data. The overall spatial structure of the gradients computed directly exhibits excellent similarity with that computed using Taylor’s hypothesis. The accuracy of the velocity gradients computed from the pseudo-volume was assessed by computing the divergence error in the flow field. The root mean square (rms) of the divergence error relative to the magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor was found to be 0.25, which is consistent with results based on other gradient measurement techniques. The velocity gradients, vorticity components and mean dissipation in the self-similar far field of the jet were found to satisfy the axisymmetric isotropy conditions. The divergence error present in the data is attributed to the intrinsic uncertainty associated with performing stereoscopic PIV measurements and not to the use of Taylor’s hypothesis. The divergence error in the data is found to affect areas of low gradient values and manifests as nonphysical values for quantities like the normalized eigenvalues of the strain-rate tensor. However, the high gradients are less affected by the divergence error and so it can be inferred that structural features of regions of intense vorticity and dissipation will be faithfully rendered
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