Seminal clotting and fibrinolytic balance: A possible physiological role in the male reproductive system
Lwaleed, B.A., Greenfield, R.S., Steward, A.B., Birch, B.R. and Cooper, A.J. (2004) Seminal clotting and fibrinolytic balance: A possible physiological role in the male reproductive system. Thrombosis and Heamostasis, 92, (4), 752-766.
Full text not available from this repository.
Semen contains enzymes and inhibitors of the haemostatic system as well as the high molecular weight seminal vesicle (HMW-SV) proteins. The former may have roles in seminal clotting and in liquefaction through “fibrinolytic” activity, which may ultimately affect fertility. Although a limited number of studies have addressed the subject, the role of clotting and fibrinolytic factors in semen remains poorly understood. The liquefaction time and the distribution of components vary across split ejaculates. This may have an important bearing on the way clotting/fibrinolytic factors in semen are assessed. Semen contains tissue factor (TF, Thromboplastin, CD142), which originates from the prostate and is associated with prostasomes. The function of TF (and prostasomes) in semen is still a matter for speculation. Recently the presence of minute amounts of factor VII in semen has been demonstrated but its importance is uncertain. Semen also contains a thrombin-like enzyme, prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1+2), D-dimer (DD) and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes. The presence of several fibrinolytic factors has been demonstrated in semen but few questions about their potential impact on semen quality have been raised. Factors found include tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), urinary plasminogen activator (u-PA) and plasmin.There are also traces of fibrinogen, plasminogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:c) and fibrin monomers.The co-ordinate expression of both TF and PAI-1 by decidual cells of the endometrium is believed to be important in maintaining haemostasis during endovascular trophoblast invasion. Kallikrein-like serine protease inhibitors including prostate specific antigen (PSA) are known to be present in semen at high concentrations. In semen PSA is also found in a complex form with protein C inhibitor (PCI) with mutually inhibitory consequences. A better understanding of the spectrum of coagulating and liquefaction agents in semen to include classical haemostatic processes and the pathogenesis resulting from any imbalances between or within either system may provide the basis for the development of more selective and efficient agents affecting global fertility. Here we review aspects of male reproductive physiology in the light of recent findings concerning conventional clotting/fibrinolytic systems in human semen with a view to stimulating further research.
|Keywords:||human seminal plasma, haemostasis, fertilization, implantation, prostasomes, semen quality, review,|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RT Nursing|
|Divisions:||University Structure - Pre August 2011 > Superseded (SONM) > Superseded (LCHN)
University Structure - Pre August 2011 > Superseded (SONM)
|Date Deposited:||01 Feb 2006|
|Last Modified:||01 Apr 2012 00:54|
|Contributors:||Lwaleed, B.A. (Author)
Greenfield, R.S. (Author)
Steward, A.B. (Author)
Birch, B.R. (Author)
Cooper, A.J. (Author)
|RDF:||RDF+N-Triples, RDF+N3, RDF+XML, Browse.|
Actions (login required)