Viral zoonoses and food of animal origin: caliciviruses and human disease

Clarke, Ian N. and Lambden, Paul R. (1997) Viral zoonoses and food of animal origin: caliciviruses and human disease. In, Kaaden, O-.R., Czerny, C.P. and Eichhorn, W. (eds.) Viral Zoonoses and Food of Animal Origin: A RE-Evaluation of Possible Hazards for Human Health. Berlin, DE, Springer Verlag, 141-152. (Archives of Virology. Supplement, 13).


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Caliciviruses are important veterinary and human pathogens. The viruses gain their name from characteristic cup-shaped structures seen on the virion surface by negative stain electron microscopy. In humans caliciviruses are a major cause of diarrhoeal disease. There are two fundamentally different genome structures amongst human caliciviruses. The Norwalk-like or small round structured viruses (SRSVs) are viruses that have an amorphous structure when viewed by EM, they have a genome composed of 3 major open reading frames (ORFs). These viruses cause epidemic gastroenteritis amongst all age groups. In contrast, the 'classic' human caliciviruses (HuCVs) display the typical calicivirus surface structure and have their capsid ORF fused to and contiguous with the non structural proteins forming one giant polyprotein. HuCVs are predominantly associated with paediatric infections and are only a minor cause of disease in humans. Spread of disease for both SRSVs and HuCVs is usually by faecal oral transmission. SRSVs are a major cause of foodborne gastroenteritis especially linked to the consumption of sewage-contaminated shellfish. However, there is no evidence that these viruses replicate in shellfish or that they originate from an animal source.

Item Type: Book Section
ISBNs: 3211830146 (paperback)
9783211830147 (paperback)
ISSNs: 0939-1983
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR180 Immunology
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
R Medicine > RB Pathology
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Medicine > Infection, Inflammation and Repair
ePrint ID: 194269
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
Date Deposited: 26 Jul 2011 13:42
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 13:43

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