Webb, A., Banks, Joe, Phillips, C.W.G., Hudson, D.A., Taunton, D.J. and Turnock, S.R.
Prediction of passive and active drag in swimming.
Procedia Engineering, 13, .
In order to understand the physical origin of passive resistance in swimming the resistance breakdown for
a swimmer is investigated. A combination of empirical methods and theoretical analysis is used to predict
passive resistance in the speed range 0 – 2 ms-1 and is shown to provide similar results to those from experimental testing. Typical magnitudes of wave, viscous pressure and skin friction resistance contribute 59%, 33% and 8% of total passive resistance respectively at free swim speed. A comparison is made between the widely used Velocity Perturbation Method and a Naval Architecture based approach in predicting active drag. For the swimmer investigated the two approaches predict active drag of 131.4 N and 133.9 N for a swimming speed of 1.53 ms-1. However, the results predicted from the Velocity Perturbation Method have a much higher uncertainty and the Naval Architecture based approach is suggested as a more robust method of predicting active drag.
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