Waller, R.G., Tyler, P.A. and Gage, J.D.
Sexual reproduction in three hermaphroditic deep-sea Caryophyllia species (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) from the NE Atlantic Ocean.
Coral Reefs, 24, (4), . (doi:10.1007/s00338-005-0031-3).
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The reproductive biology and gametogenesis of three species of Caryophyllia were examined using histological techniques. Caryophyllia ambrosia, Alcock 1898, C. cornuformis, Pourtales 1868, and C. sequenzae, Duncan 1873, were collected from the Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough in the NE Atlantic Ocean. These three ahermatypic solitary corals inhabit different depth ranges: C. cornuformis – 435–2000 m, C. sequenzae – 960–1900 m, and C. ambrosia – 1100–3000 m. All three species are hermaphroditic. Hermaphroditism in these species was found to be cyclical, with only one sex of gametes viable in any individual at any point in time, although gametes of both sexes were found together within a single mesentery. Once the viable gametes are spawned, the next sex of gametes continues to grow until mature, and so gametogenesis is a continuous cycle. Oocytes and spermacysts in all species increased in density towards the actinopharynx. Maximum fecundity for C. sequenzae was 940 oocytes per polyp, and for C. ambrosia 2900 oocytes per polyp. Fecundity could not be established for C. cornuformis. In all three species, individuals were asynchronous within populations, and production of gametes was quasi-continuous throughout the year. All species are hypothesised to have lecithotrophic larvae owing to their large oocyte sizes (C. cornuformis max – 350 ?m; C. sequenzae max – 430 ?m; C. ambrosia max – 700 ?m). Both the average oocyte size and fecundity increased in species going down the depth gradient of the NE Atlantic.
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