Miller, M.K., Russell, K.F., Pareige, P.J., Starink, M.J. and Thomson, R.C.
Low temperature copper solubilities in Fe-Cu-Ni.
Materials Science and Engineering A, 250, (1), . (doi:10.1016/S0921-5093(98)00535-8).
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An atom probe characterization of the copper concentration in the matrix of a model Fe–1.1at.%Cu–1.4% Ni alloy has been performed after isothermal ageing for various extended times at low temperatures. The matrix copper concentrations from material annealed at 500, 550 and 600°C are approximately 10% lower than the equilibrium values predicted from the Thermocalc™ program with the Kaufman database. Isothermal annealing for 4000 h at either 400 or 300°C was not sufficient to attain the equilibrium copper concentration. The kinetics of copper precipitation was investigated with the Starink-Zahra model derived for nucleation and growth reactions and a good fit with the atom probe data was found for an activation energy of 250 kJ mol?1.
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