Gao, Nong, Yao, Wei-xun and Cao, Yin-zhi
Flakes in low carbon high strength low alloy steel.
Materials Characterization, 28, (1), . (doi:10.1016/1044-5803(92)90025-D).
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Flakes in low carbon high strength low alloy steel plates are not easily identified by macroetching because they form parallel to the plane of rolling and near to porosities and segregation lines in the steel plate. They also overlap each other after heavy deformation. Ultrasonic inspection and macrofracture examinations may be convenient and reliable methods for detecting them. The presence of flakes also results in diminished values for reduction of area in tensile tests, impact toughness in the vertical direction, and fatigue strengths. Flakes in plate mainly exist in granular bainite and other microstructures transformed at lower temperatures where Si, Mn, and V segregate. Scanning electron microscopy of flake fracture after heat treatment reveals a cloudrack morphology in the crack propagation region and a moth-eaten pattern at the edges of the flakes. The reasons for the formation of microstructural features of flakes and for the relation between flakes and inclusions are discussed.
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