Forrester, A.I.J., Bressloff, N.W. and Keane, A.J.
Optimization using surrogate models and partially converged computational fluid dynamics simulations.
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 462, (2071), . (doi: 10.1098/rspa.2006.1679).
Efficient methods for global aerodynamic optimization using computational fluid dynamics simulations should aim to reduce both the time taken to evaluate design concepts and the number of evaluations needed for optimization. This paper investigates methods for improving such efficiency through the use of partially converged computational fluid dynamics results. These allow surrogate models to be built in a fraction of the time required for models based on converged results. The proposed optimization methodologies increase the speed of convergence to a global optimum while the computer resources expended in areas of poor designs are reduced. A strategy which combines a global approximation built using partially converged simulations with expected improvement updates of converged simulations is shown to outperform a traditional surrogate-based optimization.
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