Morgan, Hywel, Sun, Tao, Holmes, David, Gawad, Shady and Green, Nicolas G
Single cell dielectric spectroscopy.
Journal of Physics D Applied Physics, 40, . (doi:10.1088/0022-3727/40/1/S10).
Over the last century a number of techniques have been developed which allow the measurement of the dielectric properties of biological particles in fluid suspension. The majority of these techniques are limited by the fact that they only provide an average value for the dielectric properties of a collection of particles. More recently, with the advent of microfabrication techniques and the Lab-on-a-chip, it has been possible to perform dielectric spectroscopic experiments on single biological particles suspended in physiological media. In this paper we review current methods for single cell dielectric spectroscopy. We also discuss alternative single cell dielectric measurement techniques, specifically the ac electrokinetic methods of dielectrophoresis and electrorotation. Single cell electrical impedance spectroscopy is also discussed with relevance to a microfabricated flow cytometer. We compare impedance spectroscopy data obtained from measurements made using a microfabricated flow cytometer with simulation data obtained using an equivalent circuit model for the device.
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