Chen, Wen-Pin, Millard, David and Wills, Gary
A Four Dimensional Model of Formal and Informal Learning.
In, The 16th International International Conference on Computers in Education, Howard International House Taipei,
27 - 31 Oct 2008.
Learning systems focused on collaborative learning are often described in terms of formal and informal learning, however definitions of formal and informal learning vary, which makes it difficult to compare systems that may have been described using different perspectives. In this paper we present a framework for describing formality in e-learning systems, which can account for the most common perspectives: formality focused on Learning Objective, Learning Environment, Learning Activity and/or Learning Tool. Our framework can be used to compare different e-learning systems, and can also describe collaborative systems where different students can take very different roles in the activity, and the degree of formality can vary according to the role.
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