Berry, M.V. and Dennis, M.R.
Polarization singularities in isotropic random vector waves.
Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 457, (2005), . (doi:10.1098/rspa.2000.0660).
Following Nye & Hajnal, we explore the geometry of complex vector waves by regarding them as a field of polarization ellipses. Singularities of this field are the C lines and L lines, where the polarization is purely circular and purely linear, respectively. The singularities can be reinterpreted as loci of photon spin 1 (C lines) and 0 (L lines). For Gaussian random superpositions of plane waves equidistributed in direction but with an arbitrary frequency spectrum, we calculate the density (length per unit volume) of C and L lines.
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