Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya


Madise, Nyovani J., Ziraba, Abdhalah K., Inungu, Joseph, Khamadi, Samoel A., Ezeh, Alex, Zulu, Eliya M., Kebaso, John, Okoth, Vincent and Mwau, Matilu (2012) Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya. Health & Place, 18, (5), 1144-1152. (doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.003).

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Description/Abstract

In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence.

Item Type: Article
ISSNs: 1353-8292 (print)
Keywords: hiv prevalence, intra-urban, slums, kenya
Subjects: R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
Divisions: Faculty of Social and Human Sciences > Social Sciences > Social Statistics & Demography
ePrint ID: 338877
Date Deposited: 17 May 2012 12:55
Last Modified: 27 Mar 2014 20:21
Research Funder: ESRC
Projects:
Poverty and Sexual and Reproductive Health: towards unravelling the vicious circle
Funded by: ESRC (RES-451-26-0748)
Led by: Nyovani Janet Madise
1 October 2009 to 30 September 2011
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/338877

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