Social protection for older people in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

Falkingham, Jane and Vlachantoni, Athina (2012) Social protection for older people in Central Asia and the South Caucasus. In, Social Protection for Older Persons: Social Pensions in Asia. Mandaluyong, PH, Asian Development Bank, 246-278.


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The economic dislocation of the early 1990s had significant consequences for the relatively generous pension systems of all countries inherited from the former Soviet Union. Rising unemployment and economic restructuring reduced the contribution base, increasing system dependency rates. In the face of falling public expenditure many countries undertook wide-ranging reforms of the pension system – including tightening eligibility criteria, increasing retirement ages, and moving away from defined benefits toward defined contribution systems. This paper details the impact of economic and political transition on pension systems during the 1990s, through to the mid-2000s in Central Asia and the South Caucasus. It then focuses on the first wave of pension reforms and the current pension systems in the region today in four case study countries: Armenia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan. The analysis focuses in particular on the structure of the benefit system and the role played by minimum social pensions alongside the formal contributory system and informal transfers, including remittances.

Item Type: Book Section
ISBNs: 9789290927266 (paperback)
Subjects: H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HT Communities. Classes. Races
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
Divisions : Faculty of Social and Human Sciences > Social Sciences
ePrint ID: 340901
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
4 July 2012Published
Date Deposited: 10 Jul 2012 15:58
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 14:31
Centre for Population Change: Understanding Population Change in the 21st Century
Funded by: ESRC National Centre for Research Methods (RES-625-28-0001)
Led by: Jane Cecelia Falkingham
1 January 2009 to 31 December 2013

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