Linham, M.M. and Nicholls, R.J.
Adaptation technologies for coastal erosion and flooding: a review.
Proceedings of the ICE - Maritime Engineering, 165, (3), . (doi:10.1680/maen.2011.29).
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Coastal change can cause a serious threat to the large populations living in coastal areas around the world and in many situations, appropriate adaptation responses are required. In this paper, the changes, impacts and risks associated with coastal change, especially due to climate change, are reviewed, and a range of the technical options available for addressing resulting coastal flooding and erosion are evaluated. These are classified and compared across three potential adaptation strategies – (1) protect, (2) accommodate and (3) retreat – and considered from developed and developing country perspectives. It is emphasised that adaptation is an ongoing process which requires consideration and assessment of all drivers of risk, and monitoring of the risks and opportunities of the selected risk reduction measures, as well as review of their effectiveness. Further, adaptation needs to be integrated with wider coastal planning and management
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