Ivanova, Elena, Schiebel, Ralf, Singh, Arun D., Schmiedl, Gerhard, Niebler, Hans-Stefan and Hemleben, Christoph
Primary production in the Arabian Sea during the last 135 000 years.
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 197, (1-2), . (doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00386-9).
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Variations in primary productivity (PP) have been reconstructed in eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic parts of the Arabian Sea over the past 135 000 years applying principal component analysis and transfer function to planktic foraminiferal assemblages. Temporal variation in paleoproductivity is most pronounced in the mesotrophic northern (NAST site) and oligotrophic eastern (EAST site) Arabian Sea, and comparatively weak in the western eutrophic GeoB 3011-1 site in the upwelling area off Oman. Higher PP during interglacials (250–320 g C m?2 year?1) than during cold stages (210–270 g C m?2 year?1) at GeoB 3011-1 could have been caused by a strengthened upwelling during intensified summer monsoons and increased wind velocities. At NAST, during interglacials, PP is estimated to exceed 250 g C m?2 year?1, and during glacials to be as low as 140–180 g C m?2 year?1. These fluctuations may result from a (1) varying impact of filaments that are associated to the Oman coastal upwelling, and (2) from open-ocean upwelling associated to the Findlater Jet. At EAST, highest productivity of about 380 g C m?2 year?1 is documented for the transition from isotope stage 5 to 4. We suggest that during isotope stages 2, 4, 5.2, the transition 5/4, and the end of stage 6, deep mixing of surface waters was caused by moderate to strong winter monsoons, and induced an injection of nutrients into the euphotic layer leading to enhanced primary production. The deepening of the mixed layer during these intervals is confirmed by an increased concentration of deep-dwelling planktic foraminiferal species. A high-productivity event in stage 3, displayed by estimated PP values, and by planktic foraminifera and radiolaria flux and accumulation rate, likely resulted from a combination of intensified SW monsoons with moderate to strong NE monsoons. Differential response of Globigerina bulloides, Globigerinita glutinata and mixed layer species to the availability of food is suited to subdivide productivity regimes on a temporal and spatial scale.
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