Brooke, Rebecca C.C., Sinha, Animesh, Sidhu, K., Watson, Rachel E.B., Church, Martin K., Friedmann, Peter S., Clough, Geraldine F. and Rhodes, Lesley E.
Histamine is released following aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of human skin and mediates an aminolevulinic acid dose-related immediate inflammatory response.
Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 126, (10), . (doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700449).
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Acute skin inflammation occurs following topical aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT), but its nature and mediation are ill defined. As we observed an urticarial response, a potential role for histamine was explored. In 13 healthy volunteers, we assessed the time course and dose–response of the acute cutaneous response(s) to ALA-PDT, the impact of H1 antihistamine blockade, and measured dermal histamine release. An ALA dose series was iontophoresed into ventral forearm skin and exposed to red light. All participants exhibited an immediate urticarial response, both wheal and flare correlating with log ALA dose. Subsequently, a dose-related erythema developed at treatment sites by 3 hours and persisted at 24 hours. H1 blockade with oral cetirizine doubled the median minimal urticating dose of ALA and reduced the slope of dose–response for wheal and flare, whereas at the highest ALA dose, mean wheal and flare areas reduced by 68 and 60%, respectively. In contrast, cetirizine did not influence the 24 hour minimal phototoxic dose or erythema dose–response. Histamine release after ALA-PDT mirrored the urticarial response, levels peaking within 30 minutes and returning to baseline by 24 hours. Thus, two discrete acute inflammatory responses to topical ALA-PDT occur in human skin; histamine mediates the immediate response, but does not appear involved in the delayed phototoxicity.
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