Wellington, I.T., Valdivia, C.E., Sono, T.J., Sones, C.L., Mailis, S. and Eason, R.W.
Ordered nano-scale domains in lithium niobate single crystals via phase-mask assisted all-optical poling.
Applied Surface Science, 253, (9), . (doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.09.018).
We report the formation of directionally-ordered nanoscale surface domains on the +z face of undoped congruent lithium niobate single crystals by using UV illumination through a phase mask with an energy fluence between ~90mj/cm2 and 150 mJ/cm2 at ? = 266 nm. We clearly show here that the UV-induced surface ferroelectric domains nucleate and then propagate along the maxima of laser intensity produced by the phase mask, thus enabling a degree of control over this all-optical poling process. Acid etching of the illuminated crystal faces was employed to reveal the induced domain nature and the spatial structure of the formed nanoscale domains.
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