Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire

Apostolopoulos, V., Laversenne, L., Colomb, T., Depeursinge, C., Salathé, R.P., Pollnau, M., Osellame, R., Cerullo, G. and Laporta, P. (2004) Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+:Sapphire. Applied Physics Letters, 85, (7), 1122-1124. (doi:10.1063/1.1781737).


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We have employed femtosecond laser writing in order to induce refractive-index changes and waveguides in Ti3+-doped sapphire. Doping the sapphire crystal with an appropriate ion significantly reduces the threshold for creating structural changes, thus enabling the writing of waveguide structures. Passive and active buried channel waveguiding is demonstrated and images of the guided modes, propagation-loss values, fluorescence spectra, and output efficiencies are presented. The guiding area is located around the laser-damaged region, indicating that the guiding effect is stress induced. Refractive-index changes are measured by digital holography. Proper active doping should enable femtosecond processing and waveguide writing in various crystalline materials.

Item Type: Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1063/1.1781737
Additional Information: First time femtosecond changes the bulk of a hard crystalline material due to multi-photon absorption of the doping ion. Important for 3d optical circuit integration in crystalline materials.
ISSNs: 0003-6951 (print)
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Physics and Astronomy
ePrint ID: 46972
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
16 August 2004Published
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2007
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 12:22
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/46972

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