Representations of 'the Jew' in the writings of Nikolai Gogol, Fyodor Dostoevsky and Ivan Turgenev

Katz, Elena M. (2003) Representations of 'the Jew' in the writings of Nikolai Gogol, Fyodor Dostoevsky and Ivan Turgenev. University of Southampton, School of Humanities, Doctoral Thesis , 245pp.


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The image of 'the Jew' in nineteenth-century Russian literary texts is traditionally viewed as a
paradigm of anti-Semitic discourse. Critics have typically accentuated the presence and
continuity of negative stereotypes of the Jews. Yet anti-Semitic discourse is not the only
approach to the representation of the Jews in Russian literature. This study explores the
manifold nature of the portrayal of 'the Jew' in the works of three Russian writers of the
highest calibre: Gogol, Dostoevsky and Turgenev.
Literature at the time was highly politicized and a writer was expected to examine the
issues of the day from an ideological stance. This meant that a writer's fictional
representation of 'the Jew' was treated by many as an illustration of Jews' qualities in real
After the partitions of Poland in the eighteenth century, Russia acquired a large Jewish
population. These new Jewish subjects were confined to the Pale of Settlement, which
restricted their rights of residence in Russia proper. That in itself meant that the majority of
Jews were invisible to Russian society. Writers mainly used Western literary patterns in
describing 'the Jew'. Nevertheless, in using traditional mythic stereotypes of the Jews they
not only applied the familiar framework of Western authors but also created images based on
specifically Russian culture. Moreover, at different periods of the century 'the Jew' was
endowed with traits uncharacteristic of previous myths. The writers' constructions of 'the
Jew' thus became complex and flexible.
In order to investigate the complex constructions of 'the Jew' the following matters
are discussed: (1) the depiction of 'the Jew' by these three writers in conjunction with their
understanding of their own identity, events occurring during their lifetime, and stereotypical
frames of reference for the Jews; (2) the degree of controversy in their representations; (3)
their use of the image of 'the Jew' to define the essential qualities of the Russian.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Subjects: D History General and Old World > DK Russia. Soviet Union. Former Soviet Republics
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BM Judaism
P Language and Literature > PG Slavic, Baltic, Albanian languages and literature
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Humanities
ePrint ID: 50605
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
December 2003Made publicly available
Date Deposited: 27 Mar 2008
Last Modified: 27 Mar 2014 18:33

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