Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal

El-Fadel, M. and El-Hougeiri, N. (2003) Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 18, (7), 513-522. (doi:10.1080/10473220301460).


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This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH®) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures.

Item Type: Article
ISSNs: 1047-322X (print)
Related URLs:
Keywords: indoor air quality, occupational exposure, health effects, ventilation, emission rates, mathematical modeling, bus terminal, diesel
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Civil Engineering and the Environment
ePrint ID: 52951
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2008
Last Modified: 06 Aug 2015 02:42

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