Ras, PI3-kinase and mTOR signaling in cardiac hypertrophy.
Cardiovascular Research, 63, (3), . (doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.02.003).
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Cardiac hypertrophy involves increased mass (growth) of the heart and a cardinal feature of this condition is increased rates of protein synthesis. Several signaling pathways have been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk pathways. PI3K lies upstream of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an important positive regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. However, recent data suggest that, in response to certain hypertrophic agents, signaling via Ras and MEK/Erk, as well as mTOR, is required for activation of protein synthesis, indicating new connections between these key signaling pathways.
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