Networks, Urban

Clarke, N. (2009) Networks, Urban. In, Kitchen, Rob and Thrift, Nigel (eds.) International Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Oxford, UK, Elsevier, 414-418. (doi:10.1016/B978-008044910-4.01095-6).


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For much of the twentieth century, urban networks was a term used by sociologists and others to describe social networks, their importance for bonding within communities and bridging between communities, and their relationship to the geographical mobility implied by late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century urbanization, mid-twentieth-century suburbanization, and late-twentieth-century globalization. This relationship is often assumed to be one in which social networks are threatened by geographical mobility. From sometime in the 1980s, in a context of globalization, network became a metaphor used across the social sciences to describe how people, ideas, and objects flow between nodes in a globalizing world, and urban networks became a term used by geographers and others to describe at least four more or less connected things: (1) archipelagos of world or global cities, in which centrality depends on networks of producer services and information and communications technology infrastructure; (2) this information and communications technology infrastructure, among other networked infrastructure, which has become unbundled in recent years, leading to fragmented or splintered cities; (3) other smaller networks of humans and nonhumans – actor networks – that help to maintain urban life; and (4) twenty-first-century social networks, characterized by their transnational geographies and relatively high levels of institutionalization and self-consciousness

Item Type: Book Section
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1016/B978-008044910-4.01095-6
ISBNs: 0080449115 (hardback)
9780080449111 (hardback)
Related URLs:
Keywords: actor network, community, global city, globalization, infrastructure, network, social capital, social network, suburbanization, urbanization, world city network
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GF Human ecology. Anthropogeography
H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Geography
ePrint ID: 68981
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
July 2009Published
Date Deposited: 13 Oct 2009
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 12:54

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