'Tough'-constructions and their derivation

Hicks, Glyn (2009) 'Tough'-constructions and their derivation. Linguistic Inquiry, 40, (4), 535-566. (doi:10.1162/ling.2009.40.4.535).

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This article addresses the syntax of the notorious 'tough' (-movement) construction (TC) in English. TCs exhibit a range of apparently contradictory empirical properties suggesting that their derivation involves the application of both A-movement and A'-movement operations. Given that within previous
Principles and Parameters models TCs have remained “unexplained and in principle unexplainable” (Holmberg 2000: 839) due to incompatibility with constraints on theta-assignment, locality, and Case, this article argues that the phase-based implementation of the Minimalist program (Chomsky 2000,
2001, 2004) permits a reanalysis of null wh-operators capable of circumventing the previous theoretical difficulties. Essentially, 'tough'-movement consists of A-moving a constituent out of a “complex” null operator which has already undergone A'-movement, a “smuggling” construction in the terms of Collins (2005a,b)

Item Type: Article
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi:10.1162/ling.2009.40.4.535
ISSNs: 0024-3892 (print)
Related URLs:
Keywords: tough-movement, null operators, a-bar movement, raising, phases
Subjects: P Language and Literature > P Philology. Linguistics
Divisions : University Structure - Pre August 2011 > School of Humanities > Modern Languages
ePrint ID: 69052
Accepted Date and Publication Date:
14 October 2009Published
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2009
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2016 12:54
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/69052

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