Heller, J., Anderson, H.R., Bland, J.M., Brooke, O.G., Peacock, J.L. and Stewart, C.M.
Alcohol in pregnancy patterns and association with socio-economic, psychological and behavioural factors.
British Journal of Addiction, 83, (5), . (doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1988.tb02573.x).
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This study investigated alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its relationships with socio-economic, psychological and behavioural factors in 1463 women. Information about alcohol consumption in the preceding 7 days was obtained by structured interview at booking, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. The prevalence of current drinking was about 50% at each interview. Combining the three interviews, the cumulative prevalence of drinking was 71%. Six per cent reported drinking l00g/wk or more at at least one interview, a level of consumption which has been reported to be associated with adverse foetal outcome. Higher proportions of drinkers than non-drinkers were married, better educated, of higher social class and financial status. These factors were also associated with higher levels of consumption amongst those who drank. There was little evidence of an association between drinking and psychiatric state. Smoking was not associated with drinking status but was strongly related to the amount drunk by drinkers. Cluster analysis of heavier drinkers indicated the presence of a small sub-group of socially disadvantaged women. These findings carry implications for both prevention and perinatal epidemiology.
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