Heller, Valentin, Hager, Willi H. and Minor, Hans-Erwin
Scale effects in subaerial landslide generated impulse waves.
Experiments in Fluids, 44, (5), . (doi:10.1007/s00348-007-0427-7).
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Hydraulic scale modelling involves scale effects. The limiting criteria for scale models of subaerial landslide generated impulse waves including solid, air, and water are discussed both based on a literature review and based on detailed two-dimensional experimentation. Seven scale series based on the Froude similitude were conducted involving the intermediate-water wave spectrum. Scale effects were primarily attributed to the impact crater formation, the air entrainment and detrainment, and the turbulent boundary layer as a function of surface tension and fluid viscosity. These effects reduce the relative wave amplitude and the wave attenuation as compared with reference experiments. Wave amplitude attenuation was found to be more than 70 times larger than predicted with the standard wave theory. Limitations for plane impulse wave generation on the basis of the present research are given by which scale effects can be avoided.
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