Jacquier, B., Guy, S., Joubert, M.F., Shepherd, D.P. and Poignant, H.
Photon avalanche upconversion in heavily thulium-doped ZBLAN fibre.
In, SPIE International Symposium on Optical Science Engineering and Instrumentation, Denver, US,
Photon avalanche mechanism results from a cross relaxation energy transfer induced build up of population in an intermediate metastable level without resonant Ground State Absorption (GSA). From this level a resonant absorption occurs to populate a higher level The main characteristics of such process is a power threshold which corresponds to a sudden increase of the fluorescence arising from the upper excited state as well as a slowing and a change of the rise shape of the transient signals
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