Huang, X., Chandler, P.J., Townsend, P.D. and Rutt, H.N.
Ion-implanted lanthanum fluoride waveguides.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 127-128, . (doi:10.1016/S0168-583X(96)00986-X).
The effects of He+ and H+ implantation into LaF3 substrates have been investigated at both room temperature and 77 K. At room temperature the surface of the samples becomes black, possibly due to chemical reduction effects, but at low temperature the crystals remain clear and a refractive index change is observed which produces a surface waveguide. The dark mode spectra of these guides have been recorded using the prism coupling technique, and their refractive index profiles have been deduced from the spacing of these modes. The ion implantation produces a thin optical barrier layer of low refractive index at the end of the ion range. This paper discusses the use of multiple-energy implantation to produce a broad optical barrier in order to reduce the tunnelling losses of the guides, and subsequent thermal annealing to reduce absorption and scattering losses caused by colour centre formation in the electronic stopping surface region of the guides. It is concluded that either single- or multiple-energy He+ implants can be ideally used to form waveguides, for applications in the blue/UV or red/IR wavelength regions, respectively, with losses of a few dB/cm.
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