Wang, S. -L., Sekerka, R. F., Wheeler, A. A., Murray, B. T., Coriell, S. R., Braun, R. J. and McFadden, G. B.
Thermodynamically-consistent phase-field models for solidification.
Physica D, 69, (1-2), . (doi:10.1016/0167-2789(93)90189-8).
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In an effort to unify the various phase-field models that have been used to study solidification, we have developed a class of phase-field models for crystallization of a pure substance from its melt. These models are based on an entropy functional, as in the treatment of Penrose and Fife, and are therefore thermodynamically consistent inasmuch as they guarantee spatially local positive entropy production. General conditions are developed to ensure that the phase field takes on constant values in the bulk phases. Specific forms of a phase-field function are chosen to produce two models that bear strong resemblances to the models proposed by Langer and Kobayashi. Our models contain additional nonlinear functions of the phase field that are necessary to guarantee thermodynamic consistency.
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