Items where Division is "Faculty of Physical Sciences and Engineering > Electronics and Computer Science > Electronic & Software Systems" and Year is 2005
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Cai, Yuan, Reddy, Sudhakar, Pomeranz, Irith and Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. (2005) Battery-aware dynamic voltage scaling in multiprocessor embedded system. In, IEEE ISCAS, IEEE.
Andrei, Alexandru, Schmitz, Marcus T, Eles, Petru, Peng, Zebo and Al-Hashimi, Bashir M (2005) Quasi-Static Voltage Scaling for Energy Minimization with Time Constraints. In, Design, Automation and Test Europe Conference (DATE2005), Munich, Germany,
Argles, David, Gee, Quintin and Wills, Gary (2005) Developing a Computing Degree to Encourage Widening Participation. In, The 6th Annual Higher Education Academy Subject Network for Information Computer Science, York, UK, 30 Aug - 01 Sep 2005. , 135-139.
Argles, David and Wills, Gary (2005) CECIL – A Language for Learning Hardware Design. In, EdMedia--World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecomunications, Montreal, Canada, 28 Jun - 02 Jul 2005. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 4181-4188.
Banach, Richard, Poppleton, Michael, Jeske, Czeslaw and Stepney, Susan (2005) Retrenching the Purse: Finite Sequence Numbers, and the Tower Pattern. In, FM 2005: International Symposium of Formal Methods Europe, Newcastle, UK, 18 - 22 Jul 2005. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 382-398.
Bruni, Roberto, Butler, Michael, Ferreira, Carla, Hoare, Tony, Melgratti, Hernan and Montanari, Ugo (2005) Comparing two approaches to compensable flow composition. In, CONCUR 2005, San Francisco, 23 - 26 Aug 2005.
Butler, Michael, Ferreira, Carla and Ng, Muan Yong (2005) Precise Modelling of Compensating Business Transactions and its Application to BPEL. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 11, (5), 712-743.
Butler, Michael, Hoare, C.A.R. and Ferreira, Carla (2005) A trace semantics for long-running transactions. In, 25 Years of CSP, London, Springer, 133-150.
Butler, Michael, Jones, Cliff, Romanovsky, Alexander and Troubitsyna, Elena (2005) Proceedings of the Workshop on Rigorous Engineering of Fault-Tolerant Systems (REFT 2005). , University of Newcastle upon Tyne, School of Computing Science (Technical Report Series, CS-TR-).
Butler, Michael and Leuschel, Michael (2005) Combining CSP and B for Specification and Property Verification. In, Formal Methods 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, 18 - 22 Jul 2005. Springer, 221-236.
Butler, Michael, Leuschel, Michael and Snook, Colin (2005) Tools for system validation with B abstract machines. In, ASM 2005: 12th International Workshop on Abstract State Machines, Paris,
Butler, Michael and Ripon, Shamim (2005) Executable Semantics for Compensating CSP. In, 2nd International Workshop on Web Services and Formal Methods, Versailles, Springer, 243- 256.
Cai, Yuan, Schmitz, Marcus T., Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. and Reddy, Sudhakar M. (2005) Workload-Ahead-Driven Online Energy Minimization Techniques for Battery-Powered Embedded Systems with Time-Constraints. In, IFIP International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SOC),
Carrabs, Francesco, Cerulli, Raffaele, Gentili, Monica and Parlato, Gennaro (2005) A linear time algorithm for the minimum Weighted Feedback Vertex Set on diamonds. Inf. Process. Lett., 94, (1), 29-35.
Ciaffaglione, Alberto, Hennessy, Matthew and Rathke, Julian (2005) Proof methodologies for behavioural equivalence in distributed pi-calculus.
Ciaffaglione, Alberto, Hennessy, Matthew and Rathke, Julian (2005) Proof methodologies for behavioural equivalence in distributed pi-calculus, Springer-Verlag (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3731, Proc. Computer Scienc).
Collins, Matthew, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and Ross, Neil (2005) A Programmable Time Measurement Architecture for Embedded Memory Characterization. In, 10th IEEE European Test Symposium (ETS'05), Tallinn, Estonia, 22 - 25 May 2005. , 128-133.
Conole, G, Miles-Board, T, Bailey, C, Carr, L, Gee, Q, Grange, S, Hall, W, Power, G, Woukeu, A and Wills, G (2005) Tool Kits for a Dynamic Review Journal. In, EDMEDIA 2005 - World Conference on Education Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications., Montreal,, Canada, 27 Jun - 02 Jul 2005.
Crouch, Stephen, Henderson, Peter and Walters, Robert John (2005) BUILDING APPLICATIONS ABLE TO COPE WITH PROBLEMATIC DATA USING A DATAWARP APPROACH. At Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, USA, 25 - 28 May 2005. Institue for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication, 411-414.
Crowder, Richard, Wills, Gary and Hall, Wendy (2005) Hypermedia maintenance support applications: Benefits and development costs. Computers in Industry, 56, (7), 681-698.
Ejlali, Alireza, Schmitz, Marcus, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M, Miremadi, Seyed Ghassem and Rosinger, Paul (2005) Energy Efficient SEU-Tolerance in DVS-Enabled Real-Time Systems through Information Redundancy. In, International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED 2005), San Diego, California, USA, 08 - 10 Aug 2005.
El-Maleh, Aiman, Khursheed, Syed Saqib and M. Sait, Sadiq (2005) Efficient Static Compaction Techniques for Sequential Circuits Based on Reverse Order Restoration and Test Relaxation. At Asian Test Symposium
Ferrante, Alessandro, Parlato, Gennaro, Sorrentino, Francesco and Ventre, Carmine (2005) Improvements for Truthful Mechanisms with Verifiable One-Parameter Selfish Agents. In, WAOA Springer, 147-160.
Garratt, P.W. and Jam, E.R. (2005) Open Source Planning and Management Tool PPMT. In, ICMS'05 International Conference on Modeling and Simulatio, Marrakesh , Morocco, 22 - 24 Nov 2005.
Gee, Quintin, Carr, Leslie, Conole, Gráinne, Grange, Simon, Hall, Wendy and Wills, Gary (2005) Building a Virtual University for Orthopaedics. In, IFIP World Conference on Computers in Education 2005, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 04 - 07 Jul 2005.
Gee, Quintin H, Wills, Gary and Cooke, Eric (2005) A first programming language for IT students. In, 6th Annual Conference of the LTSN Centre for ICS, York, UK, 30 Aug - 01 Sep 2005.
Gilbert, Lester, Sim, Yee-Wai and Wang, Chu (2005) An e-Learning Systems Engineering Methodology. In, The 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 05 - 08 Jul 2005. , 150-154.
Gilbert, Lester, Sim, Yee-Wai and Wang, Chu (2005) Modelling the Learning Transaction. In, The 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 05 - 08 Jul 2005. , 615-616.
Gilbert, Lester, Wills, Gary, Sim, Yee-Wai, Wang, Chu and Stenning, Matt (2005) e-Learning within a Collaborative Orthopaedic Research Environment (CORE). In, Association for Learning Technology (ALT-C 2005), University of Manchester, 06 - 08 Sep 2005. , 79-80.
Gonciari, Paul Theo, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and Nicolici, Nicola (2005) Synchronization Overhead in SOC Compressed Test. IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems, 13, (1), 140-152.
Guo, B., Gunn, S. R., Damper, R. I. and Nelson, J. (2005) Adaptive band selection for hyperspectral image fusion using mutual information. At 8th International Conference on Information Fusion, Philadelphia, PA, , 630-637.
Guo, B., Gunn, S. R., Damper, R. I. and Nelson, J. (2005) Hyperspectral image fusion using spectrally weighted kernels. At 8th International Conference on Information Fusion, Philadelphia, PA, , 402-408.
Henderson, Peter, Crouch, Stephen, Walters, Robert John and Ni, Qinglai, Card, D N (ed.) (2005) Effects of introducing survival behaviours into automated negotiators specified in an environmental and behavioural framework. Journal of Systems and Software, 76, (1), 65-76.
Hennessy, Matthew, Yoshida, Nobuko and Rathke, Julian (2005) safeDpi: a language for controlling mobile code. Acta Informatica, 42, (4), 227-290.
Huggett, Clare, Maharatna, Koushik and Paul, Kolin (2005) On the implementation of 128-pt FFT/IFFT for high-performance WPAN. In, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS) 2005, Kobe, Japan, IEEE, 5513-5516.
Jafaipanah, Mehdi, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and White, Neil (2005) Dynamic sensor compensation using adaptive filter compatible with digital technology. IEEE Proceedings on Circuits, Devices and Systems, 152, (6), 745-751.
Jafaripanah, Mehdi, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and White, Neil M. (2005) Application of Analog Adaptive Filters for Dynamic Sensor Compensation. IEEE Transaction On Instrumentation and Measurement, 54, (1), 245-251.
Jafaripanah, Mehdi, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. and White, Neil M. (2005) Adaptive Sensor Response Correction Using Analog Filter Compatible with Digital Technology. In, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems ( ISCAS 2005), Kobe, Japan, 23 - 26 May 2005.
Jafaripanah, Mehdi, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. and White, Neil M. (2005) Dynamic Sensor Compensation Using Analogue Adaptive Filter Compatible with Digital Technology. Accepted for publication in IEE Proc. Circuits, Devices & Systems
Jeffrey, Alan and Rathke, Julian (2005) Contextual equivalence for higher-order pi-calculus revisited. Logical Methods in Computer Science, 1, (1)
Jeffrey, Alan and Rathke, Julian (2005) Full abstraction for Polymorphic Pi-Calculus, Springer-Verlag (Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Proc. ).
Jeffrey, Alan and Rathke, Julian, Pierce, B (ed.) (2005) A fully abstract may testing semantics for concurrent objects. Theoretical Computer Science, 338, (1-3), 17-63.
Jeffrey, Alan and Rathke, Julian (2005) Java Jr. : Fully abstract trace semantics for a Core Java Language. In, European Symposium on Programming, part of ETAPS, Edinburgh, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 423-438.
Klin, B., Sassone, V. and Sobocinski, P. (2005) Labels from Reductions: Towards a General Theory. In, First International Conference on Algebras and Coalgebras in Computer Science. Springer, 30-50.
Lack, Stephen and Sobocinski, Pawel (2005) Adhesive and quasiadhesive categories. Theoretical Informatics and Applications, 39, (2), 522-546.
Leuschel, Michael and Butler, Michael (2005) Automatic Refinement Checking for B. In, ICFEM'05 Springer-Verlag.
Lo Presti, S, Butler, M, Leuschel, M and Booth, C (2005) A Trust Analysis Methodology for Pervasive Computing Systems. In, Falcone, R, Barber, S, Sabater, J and Singh, M (eds.) Trusting Agents for trusting Electronic Societies, LNCS Volume 3577. , Springer.
Lo Presti, Stephane and Butler, Michael (2005) Literature Survey on Trust.
Maharatna, Koushik, Banerjee, Swapna, Grass, Eckhard, Krstic, Milos and Troya, Alfonso (2005) Modified virtually scaling free adaptive CORDIC rotator algorithm and architecture. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Ssystems for Video Technology, 15, (11), 1463-1474.
Maneewatthana, Thanyalak, Wills, Gary and Hall, Wendy (2005) Adaptive Personal Information Environment based on the Semantic Web. In, HT 2005 - Sixteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Salzburg, Austria, 06 - 09 Sep 2005. ACM.
Maneewatthana, Thanyalak, Wills, Gary and Hall, Wendy (2005) Adaptive Personal Information Environment based on the Semantic Web. In, HT 2005 - ACM Workshop on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Salzburg, Austria, 06 - 09 Sep 2005. ACM.
Merrett, Geoff, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M., White, Neil M. and Harris, Nick R. (2005) Information Managed Wireless Sensor Networks with Energy Aware Nodes. In, 2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show (NanoTech 2005), Anaheim, California, 08 - 12 May 2005. NSTI, 367-370.
Merrett, Geoff V., Al-Hashimi, Bashir M., White, Neil M. and Harris, Nick R. (2005) Resource Aware Sensor Nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks. In, Sensors & their Applications XIII, Chatham Maritime, Kent, 06 - 08 Sep 2005. IOP Publishing Ltd, 137-142.
Miles-Board, Timothy, Woukeu, Arouna, Carr, Leslie, Wills, Gary and Hall, Wendy (2005) Bringing the Semantic Web to the Office Desktop. In, 2005 ACM International Symposium on Document Engineering, Bristol, United Kingdom, 02 - 04 Nov 2005. ACM Press, New York, NY, USA.
Millard, David, Howard, Yvonne, Bailey, Christopher, Davis, Hugh, Gilbert, Lester, Jeyes, Steve, Price, Joseph, Sclater, Niall, Sherratt, Robert, Tulloch, Iain, Wills, Gary and Young, Rowin (2005) Mapping the e-Learning Assessment Domain: Concept Maps for Orientation and Navigation. In, e-Learn 2005, Vancouver, Canada, 24 - 28 Oct 2005.
Nicole, Denis A (2005) UNICORE and GRIP: Experiences of Grid Middleware Development. In, 2005 International Conference on Grid Computing and Applications, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 20 - 23 Jun 2005. CSREA Press, 11-17.
Nitsun, M, Ryan, M, Gilbert, L and Mason, H (2005) A Prospective Study of the Effectiveness of Group and Individual Psychotherapy for Women CSA Survivors. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 78, (4), 419-469.
Ochoa-Montiel, M A, Al-Hashimi, B M and Kollig, P (2005) Impact of Multicycled Scheduling on Power-Area Tradeoffs in Behavioural Synthesis. In, 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Kobe, Japan, 23 - 26 May 2005.
Ogg, S and Al-Hashimi, B (2005) Improved Data Compression for Serial Interconnected Network on Chip through Unused Significant Bit Removal. In, 19th International Conference on VLSI Design, Hyderabad, India, 03 - 07 Jan 2006.
Rezazadeh, Abdolbaghi and Butler, Michael (2005) Some Guidelines for Formal Development of Web-based Applications in B-Method. In, 4th International Conference of B and Z Users (ZB 2005), 13-15 April 2005,
Rogers, J.D. and Gunn, S.R. (2005) Identifying Feature Relevance using a Random Forest. At Subspace, Latent Structure and Feature Selection techniques: Statistical and Optimisation perspectives Workshop, Bohinj, Slovenia,
Rosinger, Paul, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and Chakrabarty, Krishnendu (2005) Rapid generation of thermal-safe test schedules. In, Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), Munich, Germany, 07 - 11 Mar 2005. IEEE.
Rosinger, Paul, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and Chakrabarty, Krishnendu (2005) Thermal-Safe Test Scheduling for Core-Based System-on-a-Chip Integrated Circuits. IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design, 25, (11), 2502-2512.
Sassone, V. and Sobocinski, P. (2005) A Congruence for Petri Nets. In, International Workshop on Petri Nets and Graph Transformations. Elsevier, 107-120.
Sassone, V. and Sobocinski, P. (2005) Locating Reactions using 2-Categories. Theoretical Computer Science, 333, (1-2), 297-327.
Sassone, V. and Sobocinski, P. (2005) Reactive Systems over Cospans. In, 20th Symposium on Logic in Computer Science, LICS 2005. IEEE Computer Society Press, 311-320.
Satpathy, Manoranjan, Leuschel, Michael and Butler, Michael, Gurevich, Yuri, Petrenko, Alexander K. and Kossatchev, Alexander (eds.) (2005) ProTest: An Automatic Test Environment for B Specifications. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 111, 113-136.
Schmitz, Marcus T, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M and Eles, Petru (2005) Co-Synthesis of Energy-Efficient Multi-Mode Embedded Systems with Consideration of Mode Execution Probabilities. IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design
Schmitz T., Marcus, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M. and Eles, Petru (2005) Co-Synthesis of Energy-Efficient Multi-Mode Embedded Systems with Consideration of Mode Execution Probabilities. IEEE Transactions on Computer Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, 24, (2), 153-169.
Shafik, Rishad Ahmed (2005) Congestion Control of Ad Hoc Wireless LANs: A Control-theoretic paradigm to digital filter based solution. University of Southampton, School of Electronics and Computer Science, Masters Thesis .
Shafik, Rishad Ahmed, Weiss, Stephan and Rogers, E T A (2005) A DSP-Based Approach to Congestion Control for Multihop Ad Hoc WLANs with BoD Access. In, 2nd IEE/EURASIP Conference on DSP Enabled Radio, University of Southampton, 19 - 20 Sep 2005. Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, 31/1-31/9.
Shi, D., Ng, G. S., Damper, R. I. and Gunn, S. R. (2005) Radical recognition of handwritten Chinese characters using GA-based kernel active shape modelling. IEE Proceedings: Vision, Image and Signal Processing, 152, (5), 634-638.
Sim, Y. W., Wang, C., Carr, L. A., Davis, H. C., Gilbert, L., Grange, S., Millard, D. E. and Wills, G. B. (2005) A Web/Grid Services Approach for a Virtual Research Environment Implementation. In, the Fourth e-Science All Hands Meeting (AHM 2005), Nottingham, UK,
Sim, Y. W., Wang, C., Gilbert, L. and Wills, G. B. (2005) An Overview of Service-Oriented Architecture.
Sim, Y. W., Wang, C., Gilbert, L. and Wills, G. B. (2005) Towards a Collaborative Orthopaedic Research Environment. In, the IEEE 1st International Workshop on Service-Oriented Computing: Consequences for Engineering Requirements (SOCCER'05), Paris, France,
Sim, Y. W., Wang, C., Gilbert, L. and Wills, G. B. (2005) User Requirement Study for a Virtual Research Environment.
Snook, Colin, Poppleton, Michael and Johnson, Ian (2005) The engineering of generic requirements for failure management. In, Eleventh International Workshop on Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality, Oporto, 13 - 14 Jun 2005. Essener Informatik Beitraege, 145-160.
Snook, Colin, Poppleton, Michael and Johnson, Ian (2005) Towards a methodology for rigorous development of generic requirements patterns. In, Workshop on Rigorous Engineering of Fault Tolerant Systems, Newcastle, UK, , 17-27.
Stenning, M., Grange, S., Sim, Y. W., Wang, C., Gilbert, L. and Wills, G. (2005) CORE User Requirement Study.
Tafaj, Enkelejda, Rosinger, Paul, Al-Hashimi, Bashir and Chakrabarty, Krisnendu (2005) Improving Thermal-Safe Test Scheduling for Core-Based Systems-on-Chip Using Shift Frequency Scaling. In, International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, Monterey, CA, 03 - 05 Oct 2005. IEEE.
Varea, Mauricio, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M., Cortés, Luis A., Eles, Petru and Peng, Zebo (2005) Dual Flow Nets: Modelling the Control/Data-Flow Relation in Embedded Systems. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)
Walters, Robert John, Card, D N (ed.) (2005) Checking of models built using a graphically based formal modelling language. Journal of Systems and Software, 76, (1), 55-64.
Walters, Robert John and Crouch, Stephen (2005) M-grid: Using Ubiquitous Web Technologies to create a Computational Grid. In, European Grid Conference (EGC) 2005, Amsterdam, 14 - 16 Feb 2005.
Wang, C., Sim, Y. W., Gilbert, L. and Wills, G. B. (2005) Integrating Service Oriented Architecture with a Virtual Research Environment.
Watkins, E Rowland and Nicole, Denis A, Arabnia, Hamid R and Reza, Hassan (eds.) (2005) Version Control in Online Software Repositories. Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice, II, 550-556.
Watkins, E Rowland and Nicole, Denis A (2005) Version Control in Online Software Repositories. ACM TechNews, 7, (872)
Wilcock, Reuben, Al-Hasmimi, Bashir M. and Wilson, Peter (2005) Integrated High Bandwidth Wave Elliptic Low-Pass Switched-Current Filter in Digital CMOS Technology. Electronics Letters
Wilcock, Reuben, Wilson, Peter R. and Al-Hashimi, Bashir (2005) A Novel Switch-Current Phase Locked Loop. At ISCAS 2005, Kobe, Japan,
Wills, G. B., Gilbert, L., Sim, Y. W., Wang, C. and Carr, L. (2005) Virtual Research Environments: A Literature Review.
Wills, GB, Gilbert, L, Gee, Q, Davis, HC, Miles-Board, T, Millard, DE, Carr, LA, Hall, W and Grange, S (2005) A Grid Services Implementation for a Virtual Research Environment. In, 1st International ELeGI Conference on Advanced Technology for Enhanced Learning, Vico Equense - Napoli (), Italy, 14 - 16 Mar 2005. BCS.
Wills, GB, Gilbert, L, Gee, Q, Davis, HC, Miles-Board, T, Millard, DE, Carr, LA, Hall, W and Grange, S (2005) Towards Grid Services for a Virtual Research Environment. In, The 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2005), Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 05 - 08 Jul 2005. IEEE, 863-867.
Wills, Gary, Miles-Board, Timothy, Bailey, Christopher, Carr, Leslie, Gee, Quintin, Hall, Wendy and Grange, Simon, Buckingham Shum, Simon (ed.) (2005) The Dynamic Review Journal: a scholarly archive. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 11, (1), 69-89.
Wilson, Peter R., Brown, Andrew D., Wilcock, Reuben and Al-Hashimi, Bashir (2005) Behavioural modeling and simulation of a switch-current phase locked loop. In, IEEE International Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Conference, San Jose, USA, IEEE.
Wilson, Peter R., Swabey, Matthew, Brown, Andrew D. and Ross, J. Neil (2005) An Intelligent Fuse-box for use with Renewable Energy Sources integrated within a Domestic Environment. In, World renewable Energy Congress, Aberdeen, UK,
Wu, Dong, Al-Hashimi, Bashir M, Schmitz, Marcus T and Eles, Petru (2005) Power-Composition Profile Driven Co-Synthesis with Power Management Selection for Dynamic and Leakage Energy Reduction. In, 8th EUROMICRO Conference on Digital System Design, Porto, Portugal, 30 Aug - 03 Sep 2005.
Yadav, Divakar and Butler, Michael (2005) Application of Event B to Global Causal Ordering for Fault Tolerant Transactions. In, Workshop on Rigorous Engineering of Fault Tolerant Systems (REFT2005), Newcastle upon Tyne, 18 - 22 Jul 2005. , 93-102.
Yang, Jingtao, Cirstea, Corina and Henderson, Peter (2005) Document Flow Model: A Formal Notation for Modelling Asynchronous Web Services Composition. In, OnTheMove Workshops, LNCS 3762, 39-48.
Yang, Jingtao, Cirstea, Corina and Henderson, Peter (2005) An Operational Semantics for DFM, a Formal Notation for Modeling Asynchronous Web Services. In, The 5th International Conference on Quality Software (QSIC 2005), Melbourne, Australia, IEEE Computer Society, 446-451.