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Twelve years of x-ray and optical variability in the seyfert galaxy NGC 4051

Twelve years of x-ray and optical variability in the seyfert galaxy NGC 4051
Twelve years of x-ray and optical variability in the seyfert galaxy NGC 4051
We discuss the origin of the optical variations in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 and present the results of a cross-correlation study using X-ray and optical light curves spanning more than 12 years. The emission is highly variable in all wavebands, and the amplitude of the optical variations is found to be smaller than that of the X-rays, even after correcting for the contaminating host galaxy flux falling inside the photometric aperture.

The optical power spectrum is best described by an unbroken power-law model with slope ?= 1.4+0.6?0.2 and displays lower variability power than the 2–10 keV X-rays on all time-scales probed. We find the light curves to be significantly correlated at an optical delay of 1.2+1.0?0.3 d behind the X-rays. This time-scale is consistent with the light traveltime to the optical emitting region of the accretion disc, suggesting that the optical variations are driven by X-ray reprocessing. We show, however, that a model whereby the optical variations arise from reprocessing by a flat accretion disc cannot account for all the optical variability. There is also a second significant peak in the cross-correlation function, at an optical delay of 39+2.7?8.4 d . The lag is consistent with the dust sublimation radius in this source, suggesting that there is a measurable amount of optical flux coming from the dust torus. We discuss the origin of the additional optical flux in terms of reprocessing of X-rays and reflection of optical light by the dust.
galaxies, active, individual, NGC 4051, seyfert
0035-8711
605-619
Breedt, E.
f6429cea-d194-41bd-b05e-61de02cee62c
McHardy, I. M.
4f215137-9cc4-4a08-982e-772a0b24c17e
Arévalo, P.
16a262f1-5692-423c-83f4-a61364f9f958
Uttley, P.
db770bd7-d97e-43f5-99d4-a585bccd352a
Sergeev, S. G.
f3e3a86c-33ec-46a6-8814-79d88c1e61e0
Minezaki, T.
502cb95e-1a04-4984-8c36-854b9921c147
Yoshii, Y.
18aec11a-889c-42c5-9b6e-860d7b176876
Sakata, Y.
e3f2e89c-4735-4001-a258-954b069fd0f0
Lira, P.
f209900c-34b4-4225-b87a-d53855819b7f
Chesnok, N. G.
f45242a1-b11a-4c85-be0c-b1ade9b228ef
Breedt, E.
f6429cea-d194-41bd-b05e-61de02cee62c
McHardy, I. M.
4f215137-9cc4-4a08-982e-772a0b24c17e
Arévalo, P.
16a262f1-5692-423c-83f4-a61364f9f958
Uttley, P.
db770bd7-d97e-43f5-99d4-a585bccd352a
Sergeev, S. G.
f3e3a86c-33ec-46a6-8814-79d88c1e61e0
Minezaki, T.
502cb95e-1a04-4984-8c36-854b9921c147
Yoshii, Y.
18aec11a-889c-42c5-9b6e-860d7b176876
Sakata, Y.
e3f2e89c-4735-4001-a258-954b069fd0f0
Lira, P.
f209900c-34b4-4225-b87a-d53855819b7f
Chesnok, N. G.
f45242a1-b11a-4c85-be0c-b1ade9b228ef

Breedt, E., McHardy, I. M., Arévalo, P., Uttley, P., Sergeev, S. G., Minezaki, T., Yoshii, Y., Sakata, Y., Lira, P. and Chesnok, N. G. (2010) Twelve years of x-ray and optical variability in the seyfert galaxy NGC 4051. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 403 (2), 605-619. (doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.16146.x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We discuss the origin of the optical variations in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 and present the results of a cross-correlation study using X-ray and optical light curves spanning more than 12 years. The emission is highly variable in all wavebands, and the amplitude of the optical variations is found to be smaller than that of the X-rays, even after correcting for the contaminating host galaxy flux falling inside the photometric aperture.

The optical power spectrum is best described by an unbroken power-law model with slope ?= 1.4+0.6?0.2 and displays lower variability power than the 2–10 keV X-rays on all time-scales probed. We find the light curves to be significantly correlated at an optical delay of 1.2+1.0?0.3 d behind the X-rays. This time-scale is consistent with the light traveltime to the optical emitting region of the accretion disc, suggesting that the optical variations are driven by X-ray reprocessing. We show, however, that a model whereby the optical variations arise from reprocessing by a flat accretion disc cannot account for all the optical variability. There is also a second significant peak in the cross-correlation function, at an optical delay of 39+2.7?8.4 d . The lag is consistent with the dust sublimation radius in this source, suggesting that there is a measurable amount of optical flux coming from the dust torus. We discuss the origin of the additional optical flux in terms of reprocessing of X-rays and reflection of optical light by the dust.

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Published date: 2010
Keywords: galaxies, active, individual, NGC 4051, seyfert

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 144553
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/144553
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 62f631ee-27c9-470e-b19a-71e2a9d6537a

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Date deposited: 24 May 2010 14:12
Last modified: 04 Nov 2019 21:05

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