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Development of a complex intervention improved randomization and informed consent in a randomized controlled trial

Donovan, Jenny L., Athene, L.J., Peters, Tim J., Brindle, Lucy, Salter, Elizabeth, Gilliatt, David, Powell, Philip, Bollina, Prasad, Neal, David E. and Hamdy, Freddie C. (2009) Development of a complex intervention improved randomization and informed consent in a randomized controlled trial Journal of Clinical Epedemiology, 62, (1), pp. 29-36. (doi:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2008.02.010). (PMID:18619811).

Record type: Article



Multicenter randomized trials are required for pragmatic evaluations of health care interventions, but recruitment is difficult. Systematic reviews failed to identify robust strategies to improve recruitment. We developed and evaluated a complex intervention to increase levels of randomization and informed consent.

Study Design and Setting

The ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) trial compares radical surgery, radical conformal radiotherapy, and active monitoring for men aged 50–69 years with localized prostate cancer. The intervention was developed using qualitative research methods (content, thematic and conversation analysis). Rates of randomization and immediate acceptance of allocation were measured every 6 months to evaluate the impact of the intervention.


The complex intervention comprised reviews of centers falling below study targets, training programmes, documents and individually tailored feedback. Over 65% of eligible participants consented to randomization. Trial participants became increasingly well informed as immediate acceptance of allocation rose from 65% to 81% between 2001 and 2005.


This complex intervention resulted in high levels of randomization and informed consent in a difficult trial. The generic aspects of the intervention could be applied to other trials to maximize randomization and informed consent, and allow the mounting of trials previously considered too difficult.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 10 July 2008
Published date: January 2009
Keywords: randomized controlled trial, randomization, qualitative research methods, prostate cancer, recruitment, ProtecT study
Organisations: Health Sciences


Local EPrints ID: 145071
ISSN: 0895-4356
PURE UUID: d9a8bf60-158b-4442-a579-c288e8295152
ORCID for Lucy Brindle: ORCID iD

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 15 Apr 2010 15:46
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 23:07

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Author: Jenny L. Donovan
Author: L.J. Athene
Author: Tim J. Peters
Author: Lucy Brindle ORCID iD
Author: Elizabeth Salter
Author: David Gilliatt
Author: Philip Powell
Author: Prasad Bollina
Author: David E. Neal
Author: Freddie C. Hamdy

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