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Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters

Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters
Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters
Hot, X-ray-emitting plasma permeates clusters of galaxies. The X-ray surface brightness often shows a peak near the centre of the cluster that is coincident with a drop in the entropy of the gas. This has been taken as evidence for a 'cooling flow', where the gas cools by radiating away its energy, and then falls to the centre. Searches for this cool gas have revealed significantly less than predicted, indicating that the mass deposition rate is much lower than expected. Most clusters with cooling flows, however, also host an active galactic nucleus at their centres. These active galactic nuclei can inflate large bubbles of hot plasma that subsequently rise through the cluster 'atmosphere', thus stirring the cooling gas and adding energy. Here we report highly resolved hydrodynamic simulations which show that buoyant bubbles increase the cooling time in the inner regions of clusters and significantly reduce the deposition of cold gas.
0028-0836
301-303
Brüggen, Marcus
31a2b869-cdfa-48ce-9268-e18799614f1c
Kaiser, Christian R.
28e00576-1e5b-47f1-b24c-fa10689717ab
Brüggen, Marcus
31a2b869-cdfa-48ce-9268-e18799614f1c
Kaiser, Christian R.
28e00576-1e5b-47f1-b24c-fa10689717ab

Brüggen, Marcus and Kaiser, Christian R. (2002) Hot bubbles from active galactic nuclei as a heat source in cooling-flow clusters. Nature, 418 (6895), 301-303. (doi:10.1038/nature00857).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Hot, X-ray-emitting plasma permeates clusters of galaxies. The X-ray surface brightness often shows a peak near the centre of the cluster that is coincident with a drop in the entropy of the gas. This has been taken as evidence for a 'cooling flow', where the gas cools by radiating away its energy, and then falls to the centre. Searches for this cool gas have revealed significantly less than predicted, indicating that the mass deposition rate is much lower than expected. Most clusters with cooling flows, however, also host an active galactic nucleus at their centres. These active galactic nuclei can inflate large bubbles of hot plasma that subsequently rise through the cluster 'atmosphere', thus stirring the cooling gas and adding energy. Here we report highly resolved hydrodynamic simulations which show that buoyant bubbles increase the cooling time in the inner regions of clusters and significantly reduce the deposition of cold gas.

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Published date: July 2002

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 14780
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/14780
ISSN: 0028-0836
PURE UUID: 794e1634-108b-42d8-baec-26cd43b6bacc

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Date deposited: 03 Mar 2005
Last modified: 15 Jul 2019 19:33

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Author: Marcus Brüggen
Author: Christian R. Kaiser

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