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The visual analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale - internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version

Kersten, Paula, White, Peter and Tennant, Alan (2010) The visual analogue WOMAC 3.0 scale - internal validity and responsiveness of the VAS version BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 11, (1), p. 80. (doi:10.1186/1471-2474-11-80).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Many people suffer with Osteoarthritis (OA) and subsequent morbidity. Therefore, measuring outcome associated with OA is important. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been a widely used patient reported outcome in OA. However, there is relatively little evidence to support the use of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) version of the scale. We aimed to explore the internal validity and responsiveness of this VAS version of the WOMAC.

Methods: Patients with chronic hip or knee pain of mechanical origin, waiting for a hip or knee joint replacement completed the WOMAC as part of a study to investigate the effects of acupuncture and placebo controls. Validity was tested using factor analysis and Rasch analysis, and responsiveness using standardised response means.

Results: Two hundred and twenty one patients (mean age 66.8, SD 8.29, 58% female) were recruited. Factor and Rasch analysis confirmed unidimensional Pain and Physical Functioning scales, capable of transformation to interval scaling and invariant over time. Some Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level. The Stiffness scale fitted the Rasch model but adjustments for DIF could not be made due to the shortness of the scale. Using the interval transformed data, Standardised Response Means were smaller than when using the raw, ordinal data.

Conclusions: The WOMAC Pain and Physical Functioning subscales satisfied unidimensionality and ordinal scaling tests, and the ability to transform to an interval scale. Some Differential Item Functioning was observed, but this cancelled out at the test level and, by doing so, at the same time removed the disturbance of unidimensionality. The scaling characteristics of sets of items which use VAS require further analysis, as it would appear that they can lead to spurious levels of responsiveness and scale compression because they exaggerate the distortion of the ordinal scale.

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Published date: 30 April 2010

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 159297
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/159297
PURE UUID: bd7fb291-4ede-4268-b356-ca25c7f81a2d

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Date deposited: 29 Jun 2010 15:28
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 12:37

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Contributors

Author: Paula Kersten
Author: Peter White
Author: Alan Tennant

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