The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

How do early environment, diet and physical activity interact to determine bone development in young children?

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Aims: To examine the interaction of maternal factors (body composition, physical activity, diet and cigarette consumption) with childhood factors (body composition, diet & physical activity) in the determination of bone mineral accrual by aged 6 years, assessed by a) bone densitometry b) hip structural analysis c) pQCT measurement of the tibia in children born to mothers from the Southampton Women?s Survey.

Methods: Children were recruited at 6 years old from the Southampton Women's Survey. Their mothers? diet, lifestyle and anthropometry had previously been characterised before and during pregnancy. The children underwent measurement of bone mass by DXA, including hip structure analysis (HSA), and by pQCT at the tibia. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry (Actiheart) for 7 continuous days. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire and detailed anthropometric data was also collected.

Results: There were 530 children who attended for a DXA scan. Of these, 148 also underwent pQCT assessment. Increased childhood height, weight and milk intake were associated with increased measures of bone size; increased physical activity levels and greater lean mass were positively associated with increased volumetric BMD. Fat mass was negatively associated with volumetric BMD. Whilst maternal height, weight, exercise in late pregnancy and pre pregnancy calcium intake were associated with increased bone size in the offspring, this association was removed after adjusting for childhood factors suggesting that maternal body composition and lifestyle may predict the child?s body composition and lifestyle.
On assessment of growth patterns in this cohort, children were who born small tended to remain small at aged 6 years. Increased catch up growth was associated with increased maternal height and total milk intake at aged 3 years. Rapid weight gain during childhood was associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy.

Conclusions: We have demonstrated that maternal and childhood factors influence bone mineral accrual and bone strength, in the developing child. Whilst many important maternal determinants measured (such as physical activity levels) were shown to influence the corresponding determinants in the offspring, other factors such as maternal cigarette smoking were shown to have persistent independent effects on post-natal growth and body composition.

PDF Zoe_Cole_PhD_FINAL_June_2010.pdf - Other
Download (11MB)

Citation

Cole, Zoë A. (2010) How do early environment, diet and physical activity interact to determine bone development in young children? University of Southampton, School of Medicine, Doctoral Thesis , 272pp.

More information

Published date: June 2010
Organisations: University of Southampton

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 162657
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/162657
PURE UUID: 5f24b2d1-73fd-4f8a-9215-db56ad5604a6

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 07 Sep 2010 16:20
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 12:32

Export record


Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×