Bah, M T, Nair, P.B. and Browne, M.
A novel computational tool for the analysis of implant positioning effects in cementless total hip replacements
At 22nd Annual Congress of the International Society for Technology in Arthroplasty, United States.
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Implant positioning is a critical factor in assuring the primary stability of cementless Total Hip Replacements (THRs). Although it is under the direct control of surgeons, finding the optimal implant position and achieving a perfect fit remain a challenge even with the advent of computer navigation. Placement of the femoral stem in an excessive ante/retroversion or varus/valgus orientation can be detrimental to the performance of THR. To determine the effect of such malalignment, finite element (FE) computer modelling is often used. However, this can be time consuming since FE meshes must be repeatedly generated and solved each time for a range of defined implant positions. In the present study, a mesh morphing technique is developed for the automatic generation of FE models of the implanted femur; in this way, many implant orientations can be investigated in a single analysis.
An average femur geometry generated from a CT scan population of 13 male and 8 female patients aged between 43 and 84 years was considered. The femur was virtually implanted with the Furlong HAC titanium alloy stem (JRI Ltd, Sheffield, UK) and placed in the medullary canal in a baseline neutral nominal position. The head of the femur was then removed and both femur and implant volumes were joined together to form a single piece that was exported into ANSYS11 ICEM CFD (ANSYS Inc., 2008) for meshing. To adequately replicate implant ante/retroversion, varus/valgus or anterior/posterior orientations, the rigid body displacement of the implant was controlled by three rotations with respect to a local coordinate system. One hundred different implant positions were analysed and the quality of the morphed meshes analysed for consistency.
To check the morphed meshes, corresponding models were generated individually by re-positioning the implant in the femur. Selected models were solved to predict the strain distribution in the bone and the bone-implant relative micromovements under joint and muscle loading. A good agreement was found for bone strains and implant micromotions between the morphed models and their individually run counterparts. In the post-processing stage further metrics were analysed to corroborate the findings of the morphed and individually run models. These included: average and maximum strains in bone interface area and its entire volume, percentage of bone interface area and its volume strained up to and beyond 0.7%; implant average and maximum micromotions and finally percentages of implant area undergoing reported critical micromotions of 50 ?m, 100 ?m and 150 ?m for bone ingrowth. Excellent correlation was observed in all cases.
In conclusion, the proposed technique allowed an automatic generation of FE meshes of the implanted femur as the implant position varies; the required computational resources were considerably reduced and the biomechanical response was evaluated. This model forms a good basis for the development of a tool for multiple statistical analyses of the effects of implant orientation in pre-clinical studies
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