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Beta-delta phase change during dropweight impact on cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine

Beta-delta phase change during dropweight impact on cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine
Beta-delta phase change during dropweight impact on cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine
The secondary explosive cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine (HMX) exists in a variety of crystal structures; the most widely used being the ?-phase which is stable at room temperature and pressure. On heating, a more impact sensitive form (? phase) is produced. The nonlinear optical technique of second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used as a probe of phase since ?-phase HMX generates a second harmonic at 532?nm when 1064?nm laser light is incident upon it. We present high-speed photography of SHG in HMX samples during dropweight impact and show that this technique can provide good spatial information and time resolution. We find evidence for small areas of ?-phase HMX appearing in the period from 13??s before ignition to 10??s afterwards, demonstrating that the heating on impact is sufficient to overcome the loading conditions and cause the phase change.
organic compounds, explosions, solid-state phase transformations, laser beam effects, optical harmonic generation
0021-8979
4131-4134
Czerski, H.
7d291075-9bab-46f8-9005-21b31220b96a
Greenaway, M.W.
0639a97e-06f9-4f53-87d0-369ca9f9b485
Proud, W.G.
ef2dca77-4d76-43c7-850e-3351e85d58ac
Field, J.E.
5698517c-4404-4bae-9f02-e43cc4b1b7fa
Czerski, H.
7d291075-9bab-46f8-9005-21b31220b96a
Greenaway, M.W.
0639a97e-06f9-4f53-87d0-369ca9f9b485
Proud, W.G.
ef2dca77-4d76-43c7-850e-3351e85d58ac
Field, J.E.
5698517c-4404-4bae-9f02-e43cc4b1b7fa

Czerski, H., Greenaway, M.W., Proud, W.G. and Field, J.E. (2004) Beta-delta phase change during dropweight impact on cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine. Journal of Applied Physics, 96 (8), 4131-4134. (doi:10.1063/1.1790067).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The secondary explosive cyclotetramethylene-tetranitroamine (HMX) exists in a variety of crystal structures; the most widely used being the ?-phase which is stable at room temperature and pressure. On heating, a more impact sensitive form (? phase) is produced. The nonlinear optical technique of second harmonic generation (SHG) can be used as a probe of phase since ?-phase HMX generates a second harmonic at 532?nm when 1064?nm laser light is incident upon it. We present high-speed photography of SHG in HMX samples during dropweight impact and show that this technique can provide good spatial information and time resolution. We find evidence for small areas of ?-phase HMX appearing in the period from 13??s before ignition to 10??s afterwards, demonstrating that the heating on impact is sufficient to overcome the loading conditions and cause the phase change.

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More information

Published date: 2004
Keywords: organic compounds, explosions, solid-state phase transformations, laser beam effects, optical harmonic generation

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 165641
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/165641
ISSN: 0021-8979
PURE UUID: b8cfb809-e578-4a46-9b3a-f7daff5d07ca

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Oct 2010 09:58
Last modified: 16 Jul 2019 23:52

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