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New phenomena in ultrafast laser micro-processing: from quill to non-reciprocal writing

New phenomena in ultrafast laser micro-processing: from quill to non-reciprocal writing
New phenomena in ultrafast laser micro-processing: from quill to non-reciprocal writing
Modification of transparent materials with ultrafast lasers has attracted considerable interest due to a wide range of applications including laser surgery, integrated optics, optical data storage, 3D micro- and nano-structuring [1]. Three different types of material modifications can be induced with ultrafast laser irradiation in the bulk of a transparent material, silica glass in particular: an isotropic refractive index change (type 1); a form birefringence associated with self-assembled nanogratings and negative refractive index change (type 2) [2,3]; and a void (type 3). In fused silica the transition from type 1 to type 2 and finally to type 3 modification is observed with an increase of fluence. Recently, a remarkable phenomenon in ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials has been reported manifesting itself as a change in material modification by reversing the writing direction (Figure 1a) [4]. The phenomenon has been interpreted in terms of anisotropic plasma heating by a tilted front of the ultrashort laser pulse. Moreover a change in structural modification has been demonstrated in glass by controlling the direction of pulse front tilt, achieving a calligraphic style of laser writing which is similar in appearance to that inked with the bygone quill pen [5]. It has also been a common belief that in a homogeneous medium, the photosensitivity and corresponding light-induced material modifications do not change on the reversal of light propagation direction. More recently it have observed that in a non-centrosymmetric medium, modification of the material can be different when light propagates in opposite directions (KaYaSo effect, Figure 1b) [6]. In particular, when the direction of the femtosecond laser beam is reversed from +Z to – Z directions, the structures written in lithium niobate crystal when translating the beam along the +Y and –Y directions are mirrored. This is the first evidence of a new optical phenomenon of non-reciprocal photosensitivity. We interpret this effect in terms of light pressure and associated heat flow resulting in a temperature gradient in homogeneous media without inversion symmetry under uniform intense irradiation. Non-reciprocity is produced by magnetic field (Faraday effect) and movement of the medium with respect to the direction of light propagation: parallel (Sagnac effect) or perpendicular (KaYaSo effect). We anticipate that the observed phenomena will open new opportunities in laser material processing, laser surgery, optical manipulation and data storage.
Kazansky, P.G.
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Yang, W.
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Shimotsuma, Y.
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Hirao, K.
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Svirko, Y.P.
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Kazansky, P.G.
a5d123ec-8ea8-408c-8963-4a6d921fd76c
Yang, W.
8d99a175-3cc8-44bc-99c2-cf431ae9a4ea
Shimotsuma, Y.
87dadd83-161c-47db-b2d5-d9b35426760e
Hirao, K.
fa81b51e-88a4-496f-bf00-1eca4fd5d7ca
Svirko, Y.P.
ff9d5c74-0e2c-48eb-84ba-3800c29d9a67

Kazansky, P.G., Yang, W., Shimotsuma, Y., Hirao, K. and Svirko, Y.P. (2009) New phenomena in ultrafast laser micro-processing: from quill to non-reciprocal writing. The 10th International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication in conjunction with The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Material Processing, Kobe, Japan. 28 Jun - 01 Jul 2009.

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

Modification of transparent materials with ultrafast lasers has attracted considerable interest due to a wide range of applications including laser surgery, integrated optics, optical data storage, 3D micro- and nano-structuring [1]. Three different types of material modifications can be induced with ultrafast laser irradiation in the bulk of a transparent material, silica glass in particular: an isotropic refractive index change (type 1); a form birefringence associated with self-assembled nanogratings and negative refractive index change (type 2) [2,3]; and a void (type 3). In fused silica the transition from type 1 to type 2 and finally to type 3 modification is observed with an increase of fluence. Recently, a remarkable phenomenon in ultrafast laser processing of transparent materials has been reported manifesting itself as a change in material modification by reversing the writing direction (Figure 1a) [4]. The phenomenon has been interpreted in terms of anisotropic plasma heating by a tilted front of the ultrashort laser pulse. Moreover a change in structural modification has been demonstrated in glass by controlling the direction of pulse front tilt, achieving a calligraphic style of laser writing which is similar in appearance to that inked with the bygone quill pen [5]. It has also been a common belief that in a homogeneous medium, the photosensitivity and corresponding light-induced material modifications do not change on the reversal of light propagation direction. More recently it have observed that in a non-centrosymmetric medium, modification of the material can be different when light propagates in opposite directions (KaYaSo effect, Figure 1b) [6]. In particular, when the direction of the femtosecond laser beam is reversed from +Z to – Z directions, the structures written in lithium niobate crystal when translating the beam along the +Y and –Y directions are mirrored. This is the first evidence of a new optical phenomenon of non-reciprocal photosensitivity. We interpret this effect in terms of light pressure and associated heat flow resulting in a temperature gradient in homogeneous media without inversion symmetry under uniform intense irradiation. Non-reciprocity is produced by magnetic field (Faraday effect) and movement of the medium with respect to the direction of light propagation: parallel (Sagnac effect) or perpendicular (KaYaSo effect). We anticipate that the observed phenomena will open new opportunities in laser material processing, laser surgery, optical manipulation and data storage.

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Published date: 29 June 2009
Additional Information: Invited
Venue - Dates: The 10th International Symposium on Laser Precision Microfabrication in conjunction with The 5th International Congress on Laser Advanced Material Processing, Kobe, Japan, 2009-06-28 - 2009-07-01

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Local EPrints ID: 166967
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/166967
PURE UUID: 50721a95-d988-46e6-bf0a-8827c4605138

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Date deposited: 04 Nov 2010 11:12
Last modified: 19 Mar 2020 17:34

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Contributors

Author: P.G. Kazansky
Author: W. Yang
Author: Y. Shimotsuma
Author: K. Hirao
Author: Y.P. Svirko

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