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An interdisciplinary theory of implementation, embedding and integration: the development of normalization process theory

An interdisciplinary theory of implementation, embedding and integration: the development of normalization process theory
An interdisciplinary theory of implementation, embedding and integration: the development of normalization process theory
Background: Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built.

Methods: Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model.

Results: Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory.

Conclusion: Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.
May, Carl R.
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Mair, Frances
5a57846b-cda7-4368-9d20-0aa2a1d490ca
Finch, Tracy
b1916307-8516-4b70-8ba5-05d3310839de
MacFarlane, Anne
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Dowrick, Christopher
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Treweek, Shaun
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Rapley, Tim
eb4364d5-c016-403a-969a-aae1fd35a97c
Ballini, Luciana
466291d7-5c0f-4378-bf66-1039ddf43209
Ong, Bie Nio
f967326a-f5e0-4571-821e-57f44e726d02
Rogers, Anne
cac0b774-b6bf-4e22-bee6-03551d0730c7
Murray, Elizabeth
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Elwyn, Glyn
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Legare, France
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Gunn, Jane
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Montori, Victor M.
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May, Carl R.
17697f8d-98f6-40d3-9cc0-022f04009ae4
Mair, Frances
5a57846b-cda7-4368-9d20-0aa2a1d490ca
Finch, Tracy
b1916307-8516-4b70-8ba5-05d3310839de
MacFarlane, Anne
8d892346-192c-4c83-96d3-d9e7fba43d64
Dowrick, Christopher
1869ad5e-1959-446c-b2a8-3fcdf3e79667
Treweek, Shaun
2e309a54-c618-4a59-b0fd-2b878034cb98
Rapley, Tim
eb4364d5-c016-403a-969a-aae1fd35a97c
Ballini, Luciana
466291d7-5c0f-4378-bf66-1039ddf43209
Ong, Bie Nio
f967326a-f5e0-4571-821e-57f44e726d02
Rogers, Anne
cac0b774-b6bf-4e22-bee6-03551d0730c7
Murray, Elizabeth
cb300780-9041-44af-9ae5-e13531eb23b8
Elwyn, Glyn
dd0ada9e-9b87-4734-9f9c-9a914d5e200a
Legare, France
70eb2bb2-247d-4674-8e4c-da8998352986
Gunn, Jane
0be5f1b1-2186-47aa-a84a-b835a47b1f05
Montori, Victor M.
a5f37c36-7f57-4a70-8975-f11d9c63b87e

May, Carl R., Mair, Frances, Finch, Tracy, MacFarlane, Anne, Dowrick, Christopher, Treweek, Shaun, Rapley, Tim, Ballini, Luciana, Ong, Bie Nio, Rogers, Anne, Murray, Elizabeth, Elwyn, Glyn, Legare, France, Gunn, Jane and Montori, Victor M. (2009) An interdisciplinary theory of implementation, embedding and integration: the development of normalization process theory. Implementation Science, 4 (29). (doi:10.1186/1748-5908-4-29). (PMID:2693517)

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Theories are important tools in the social and natural sciences. The methods by which they are derived are rarely described and discussed. Normalization Process Theory explains how new technologies, ways of acting, and ways of working become routinely embedded in everyday practice, and has applications in the study of implementation processes. This paper describes the process by which it was built.

Methods: Between 1998 and 2008, we developed a theory. We derived a set of empirical generalizations from analysis of data collected in qualitative studies of healthcare work and organization. We developed an applied theoretical model through analysis of empirical generalizations. Finally, we built a formal theory through a process of extension and implication analysis of the applied theoretical model.

Results: Each phase of theory development showed that the constructs of the theory did not conflict with each other, had explanatory power, and possessed sufficient robustness for formal testing. As the theory developed, its scope expanded from a set of observed regularities in data with procedural explanations, to an applied theoretical model, to a formal middle-range theory.

Conclusion: Normalization Process Theory has been developed through procedures that were properly sceptical and critical, and which were opened to review at each stage of development. The theory has been shown to merit formal testing.

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Published date: 21 May 2009

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 167283
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/167283
PURE UUID: 54115dfd-a9d7-44e2-9a88-26c85d470648
ORCID for Carl R. May: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0451-2690

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Date deposited: 11 Nov 2010 11:46
Last modified: 15 Dec 2018 01:31

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Contributors

Author: Carl R. May ORCID iD
Author: Frances Mair
Author: Tracy Finch
Author: Anne MacFarlane
Author: Christopher Dowrick
Author: Shaun Treweek
Author: Tim Rapley
Author: Luciana Ballini
Author: Bie Nio Ong
Author: Anne Rogers
Author: Elizabeth Murray
Author: Glyn Elwyn
Author: France Legare
Author: Jane Gunn
Author: Victor M. Montori

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