The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Effect of introduction of integrated out of hours care in England: observational study

Lattimer, Val, Turnbull, Joanne, Burgess, Abigail, Surridge, Heidi, Gerard, Karen, Lathlean, Judith, Smith, Helen and George, Steve (2005) Effect of introduction of integrated out of hours care in England: observational study BMJ, 331, (7508), pp. 81-84. (doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.81).

Record type: Article


Objectives: To quantify service integration achieved in the national exemplar programme for single call access to out of hours care through NHS Direct, and its effect on the wider health system.

Design: Observational before and after study of demand, activity, and trends in the use of other health services.

Participants: 34 general practice cooperatives with NHS Direct partners (exemplars): four were case exemplars; 10 control cooperatives.

Setting: England.

Main outcome measures: Extent of integration; changes in demand, activity, and trends in emergency ambulance transports; attendances at emergency departments, minor injuries units, and NHS walk-in centres; and emergency admissions to hospital in the first year.

Results: Of 31 distinct exemplars, 21 (68%) integrated all out of hours call management. Nine (29%) achieved single call access for all patients. In the only case exemplar where direct comparison was possible, a higher proportion of telephone calls were handled by cooperative nurses before integration than by NHS Direct afterwards (2622/6687 (39%) v 2092/7086 (30%): P < 0.0001). Other case exemplars did not achieve 30%. A small but significant downturn in overall demand for care seen in two case exemplars was also seen in the control cooperatives. The number of emergency ambulance transports increased in three of the four case exemplars after integration, reaching statistical significance in two (5%, -0.02% to 10%, P = 0.06; 6%, 1% to 12%, P = 0.02; 7%, 3% to 12%, P = 0.001). This was always accompanied by a significant reduction in the number of calls to the integrated service.

Conclusion: Most exemplars achieved integration of call management but not single call access for patients. Most patients made at least two telephone calls to contact NHS Direct, and then waited for a nurse to call back. Evidence for transfer of demand from case exemplars to 999 ambulance services may be amenable to change, but NHS Direct may not have sufficient capacity to support national implementation of the programme.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: 9 July 2005
Additional Information: Primary care
Keywords: primary care, out of hours, england, integration


Local EPrints ID: 17442
ISSN: 0959-8138
PURE UUID: 076d046b-1a5e-4bc6-ac7b-cff65b5a23a0

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 24 May 2006
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 16:38

Export record



Author: Val Lattimer
Author: Joanne Turnbull
Author: Abigail Burgess
Author: Heidi Surridge
Author: Karen Gerard
Author: Judith Lathlean
Author: Helen Smith
Author: Steve George

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.