Krishnaveni, Ghattu V., Veena, Sargoor R., Winder, Nicola R., Hill, Jacqueline C., Noonan, Kate, Boucher, Barbara J., Karat, Samuel C. and Fall, Caroline H.
Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon Study
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93, (3), . (doi:10.3945/?ajcn.110.003921). (PMID:21228264).
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Background: Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculoskeletal health in children, but its relation with offspring metabolic risk is not known.
Objective: We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometric variables, body composition, and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children.
Design: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured at 28–32 wk gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Anthropometric variables, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure, and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 y of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured by using a hand-held dynamometer at age 9.5 y. Arm-muscle area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated by using the homeostasis model assessment equation.
Results: Sixty-seven percent of women had vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L]. At ages 5 and 9.5 y, children born to vitamin D–deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle area in comparison with children born to mothers without deficiency (P < 0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 y, children of vitamin D–deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than did children of nondeficient women (P = 0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age.
Conclusion: Intrauterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with less muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children.
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