McAlpine, A. and Kingan, Michael J.
Far-field sound radiation due to an installed open rotor
International Journal of Aeroacoustics, 11, (2), . (doi:10.1260/1475-472X.11.2.213).
Future single rotation propeller and contra-rotating advanced open rotor concepts promise a significant fuel efficiency advantage over current generation turbofan engines. The development of rotors which produce a minimum level of noise is a critical technical issue which needs to be resolved in order for these concepts to become viable aircraft propulsors. Noise and emissions are subject to stringent legislative requirements, thus accurate models are required in order to predict the noise radiated from aircraft engines. In this article, the development of a theoretical model to predict noise levels of an installed open rotor is reported. First a canonical problem is examined: how to predict the pressure field produced by a rotating ring of point sources adjacent to a rigid cylinder. Analytic expressions for the far-field pressure from a rotating ring of single-frequency monopole and dipole point sources, located near an infinitely long rigid cylinder, immersed in a constant axial mean flow, are explicitly formulated. Illustrative results show how the far-field pressure is affected by varying the source rotational direction, source location and source radius. Next the solution of the canonical problem is utilized to formulate a more advanced model to predict the noise due to an installed open rotor. In this model, the rotor noise sources are represented by a distribution of rotating sources. The adjacent aircraft fuselage is modeled by the rigid cylinder, and the effect of the fuselage boundary layer and other steady distortions are neglected. Also neglected is the scattering from other surfaces such as the pylon, wing and centerbody. This distributed source model can be used to calculate the effect of scattering of open rotor noise by an adjacent cylindrical fuselage. The model can be used to calculate both rotor-alone tones and tones produced by periodic unsteady loading on the rotor blades. Practical examples are provided which show how the effect of blade rotational direction and propeller location relative to the fuselage affect the sound produced by the interaction of a pylon wake with a rotor in a pusher configuration
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