Hardy, Julia E., Dodds, Simon R. and Roberts, Anthony D.
An objective evaluation of the effectiveness of different methods of displaying three-dimensional information with medical X-ray images
Investigative Radiology, 31, (7), .
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Rationale and Objectives: The authors determine the effectiveness of stereoscopy and vertical-axis rotation for displaying three-dimensional (3-D) information in x-ray images.
Methods: Simple x-ray images were simulated using ray tracing and computer-displayed in monoscopic static (MS), monoscopic rotating (MR), stereoscopic static (SS), and stereoscopic rotating (SR) formats. In two experimental tasks, participants including experts (radiologists and radiographers) were shown images displayed in these four formats. Performance was measured by participants' accuracy of judgment, amount of time taken, and confidence in each response. The experts also informally evaluated the displays using complex fluoroscopic skull images and a simulated diagnostic task.
Results: The results from both tasks were consistent and showed MS to be least effective and SR to be most effective on all measures. There was no difference in performance between the nonexperts and experts, whose informal feedback consolidated the experimental findings.
Conclusions: It was found that rotational stereoscopic fluoroscopy is feasible and is an effective way of portraying 3-D information using x-rays.
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