The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

The observer perspective: effects on social anxiety and performance

Spurr, Jane M. and Stopa, Lusia (2003) The observer perspective: effects on social anxiety and performance Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, (9), pp. 1009-1028. (doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00177-8).

Record type: Article


The cognitive model of social phobia by Clark and Wells (Social phobia: Diagnosis, Assessment and treatment (1995)) proposes that individuals with social phobia generate a negative impression of how they appear to others, constructed from their own thoughts, feelings and internal sensations. This impression can occur in the form of a visual image from an external, or "observer", perspective. Although social phobics use this perspective more than controls, the impact of the observer perspective has not been tested experimentally. This study investigated the effects of taking the observer perspective on thinking, anxiety, behaviour and social performance in high and low socially anxious participants. Forty-four participants (N=22 in each group) gave two speeches, one in the observer and one in the field perspective. Use of the observer perspective produced more frequent negative thoughts, more safety behaviours, and worse self-evaluation of performance in both groups. There were also clear trends demonstrating increases in anxiety and in thought belief ratings in the observer perspective compared to the field perspective. Results are consistent with the Clark and Wells model of social phobia. This study also suggests that in low socially anxious individuals, the observer perspective may contain positive information.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: September 2003
Keywords: social phobia, social anxiety, observer perspective, negative thoughts


Local EPrints ID: 18446
ISSN: 0005-7967
PURE UUID: 8d249c68-fd77-4362-97b1-792c85a1ddc9

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Dec 2005
Last modified: 17 Jul 2017 16:35

Export record



Author: Jane M. Spurr
Author: Lusia Stopa

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.