The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Manual vs. adaptive cruise control - can driver's expectation be matched?

Zheng, Pengjun and McDonald, Mike (2005) Manual vs. adaptive cruise control - can driver's expectation be matched? Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 13, (5-6), pp. 421-431. (doi:10.1016/j.trc.2005.05.001).

Record type: Article


The role of the driver in the longitudinal car following control task will change from operator to supervisor with most of manual control replaced by automation as adaptive cruise control (ACC) technologies become commonplace. The extent to which manual control can be replaced by ACC will be determined by many factors. An important issue is the compatibility between ACC performance and the driver’s expectations.
This paper describes the results of a simulation study of the performance of ACC relative to driver expectation. Driver’s expectation is quantitatively defined as the expected deceleration rate for several time-to-collision (TTC) levels, and an absolute minimum TTC that drivers tried to avoid in all cases. A two-level ACC algorithm was used to simulate the performance of an ACC equipped vehicle in various scenarios, and the result was compared to the driver’s expectations. The investigation has focused on scenarios which ACC is able to manage technically, but where driver expectations might be breached.
By systematically changing variables such as the parameters of the ACC algorithms, traffic scenarios and time-headway settings, a large number of situations have been tested. The results have revealed that whilst appropriate ACC settings can be found which will meet the driver’s expectations, the ACC settings that are most capable in a range of traffic conditions are not necessarily the most user-friendly. A discussion on the implications of the findings is also presented.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Published date: October 2005
Keywords: adaptive cruise control, driver behaviour, driver expectation, simulation, evaluation
Organisations: Civil Engineering & the Environment


Local EPrints ID: 186513
ISSN: 0968-090X
PURE UUID: 396be1a0-f363-4a26-8bb8-45828d877982

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 May 2011 09:15
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 11:47

Export record



Author: Pengjun Zheng
Author: Mike McDonald

University divisions

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton:

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.