Hardman-Mountford, N., Allen, J.I., Frost, M.T., Hawkins, S.J., Kendall, M.A., Mieszkowska, N., Richardson, K.A. and Somerfield, P.J.
Diagnostic monitoring of a changing environment: An alternative UK perspective
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 50, (12), . (doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.022).
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Adaptive management of the marine environment requires an understanding of the complex interactions within it. Establishing levels of natural variability within and between marine ecosystems is a necessary prerequisite to this process and requires a monitoring programme which takes account of the issues of time, space and scale. In this paper, we argue that an ecosystem approach to managing the marine environment should take direct account of climate change indicators at a regional level if it is to cope with the unprecedented change expected as a result of human impacts on the earth climate system. We discuss the purpose of environmental monitoring and the importance of maintaining long-term time series. Recommendations are made on the use of these data in conjunction with modern extrapolation and integration tools (e.g. ecosystem models, remote sensing) to provide a diagnostic approach to the management of marine ecosystems, based on adaptive indicators and dynamic baselines.
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