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Tephra stratigraphy and eruptive volume of the May, 2008, Chaitén eruption, Chile

Tephra stratigraphy and eruptive volume of the May, 2008, Chaitén eruption, Chile
Tephra stratigraphy and eruptive volume of the May, 2008, Chaitén eruption, Chile
On May 1st 2008 Mount Chaitén (southern Chile) interrupted a long period of quiescence, generating a sequence of explosive eruptions and causing the evacuation of Chaitén town located a few kilometers south of the volcano. The activity was characterized by several explosive events each associated with plumes which reached up to about 19 km above sea level. The products were dispersed across a wide area, with the finest ash reaching the Atlantic coast of Argentina. Our field observations in the proximal-medial area (3–25 km from the vent) indicate that the May 2008 tephra deposit consists of numerous layers, most of which can be correlated with individual eruptive events. These layers vary from extremely fine-grained ash to layers of lapilli and blocks, composed of both juvenile and lithic material. Here we describe the stratigraphy and physical characteristics of the May 2008 deposits, and propose a reconstruction of the timing of the May 2008 events. The deposits are mainly associated with the three main explosive phases which occurred on 1st–2nd May, 3rd–5th May and 6th May, with an estimated bulk tephra volume of 0.5–1.0 km3 (integration of both exponential and power-law fitting). For the 6th May event, represented by a layer composed mainly of lithic lapilli and blocks (>2 mm), an isopleth map was compiled from which a 19 km plume height was determined, which is in good agreement with satellite observations.
Chaitén, Tephra, Stratigraphy, Explosive eruption, Eruptive volume
0258-8900
613-630
Alfano, Fabrizio
5f165204-aa27-449d-a568-882a1b781489
Bonadonna, Constanza
72d508e2-4866-4fc3-846f-86442196ad4a
Volentik, Alain C.M.
6793ab7d-db8f-4c39-90ab-d974d3f2f95d
Connor, Charles B.
71d48375-de5d-4d73-9afa-6728fdf5a29d
Watt, Sebastian F.L.
8cde9189-35d1-450c-bff8-f7c9107eb635
Pyle, David M.
ce901611-520f-4b83-8da1-3de165cd8a7a
Connor, Laura J.
70753c52-93d1-4eb7-9423-b9a7addf4b15
Alfano, Fabrizio
5f165204-aa27-449d-a568-882a1b781489
Bonadonna, Constanza
72d508e2-4866-4fc3-846f-86442196ad4a
Volentik, Alain C.M.
6793ab7d-db8f-4c39-90ab-d974d3f2f95d
Connor, Charles B.
71d48375-de5d-4d73-9afa-6728fdf5a29d
Watt, Sebastian F.L.
8cde9189-35d1-450c-bff8-f7c9107eb635
Pyle, David M.
ce901611-520f-4b83-8da1-3de165cd8a7a
Connor, Laura J.
70753c52-93d1-4eb7-9423-b9a7addf4b15

Alfano, Fabrizio, Bonadonna, Constanza, Volentik, Alain C.M., Connor, Charles B., Watt, Sebastian F.L., Pyle, David M. and Connor, Laura J. (2011) Tephra stratigraphy and eruptive volume of the May, 2008, Chaitén eruption, Chile. Bulletin of Volcanology, 73 (5), 613-630. (doi:10.1007/s00445-010-0428-x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

On May 1st 2008 Mount Chaitén (southern Chile) interrupted a long period of quiescence, generating a sequence of explosive eruptions and causing the evacuation of Chaitén town located a few kilometers south of the volcano. The activity was characterized by several explosive events each associated with plumes which reached up to about 19 km above sea level. The products were dispersed across a wide area, with the finest ash reaching the Atlantic coast of Argentina. Our field observations in the proximal-medial area (3–25 km from the vent) indicate that the May 2008 tephra deposit consists of numerous layers, most of which can be correlated with individual eruptive events. These layers vary from extremely fine-grained ash to layers of lapilli and blocks, composed of both juvenile and lithic material. Here we describe the stratigraphy and physical characteristics of the May 2008 deposits, and propose a reconstruction of the timing of the May 2008 events. The deposits are mainly associated with the three main explosive phases which occurred on 1st–2nd May, 3rd–5th May and 6th May, with an estimated bulk tephra volume of 0.5–1.0 km3 (integration of both exponential and power-law fitting). For the 6th May event, represented by a layer composed mainly of lithic lapilli and blocks (>2 mm), an isopleth map was compiled from which a 19 km plume height was determined, which is in good agreement with satellite observations.

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More information

Published date: 2011
Keywords: Chaitén, Tephra, Stratigraphy, Explosive eruption, Eruptive volume

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 190557
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/190557
ISSN: 0258-8900
PURE UUID: 6873e5b7-155b-47a7-b20f-56b038a6a1a4

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 21 Jun 2011 10:45
Last modified: 18 Jul 2017 11:37

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